The overall goal of this study was to examine the relationship between burnout and two parameters: job strains and coping styles. The subjects were 568 nurses from a university hospital in Ishikawa Prefecture of Japan. A packet of self-administered questionnaires was distributed to the nurses. Four hundred and forty nurses completed the questionnaires. The Japanese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used to measure burnout. The Japanese MBI is consisted of three factors: Physical Exhaustion, Emotional Exhaustion/Depersonalization, and Personal Accomplishment. We developed the Nursing Job Stressor Scale (NJSS) to assess perceived job strains. The analysis identified seven major sources of strain. The seven subscales were: conflict with other nursing staffs, nursing role conflict, conflict with physicians/autonomy, dealing with death and dying, qualitative work load, quantitative work load, and conflict with patients. The Japanese version of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) assessed coping styles. The three coping patterns include: Task-oriented coping, Emotion-oriented coping, and Avoidance-oriented coping. Stepwise multiple regression analysis resulted in significant predictors for Physical Exhaustion being quantitative and qualitative work load strains, the strain variables: quantitative work load, conflict with other nursing staffs, and conflict with patients for Emotional Exhaustion/Depersonalization, qualitative work load strain for diminished Personal Accomplishment, nursing role conflict strain for Personal Accomplishment. Emotion-oriented coping style was a significant predictor for Emotional Exhaustion/Depersonalization and diminished Personal Accomplishment, while both Task-oriented and Avoidance-oriented coping styles were significant predictors for Personal Accomplishment
To test Joossens and Geboers's hypothesis that salt is a common cause of both cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) and stomach cancer (SC), we examined the relationship between: the CVD and SC standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), and urinary salt (NaCI), potassium (K) excretion, and urinary sodium-potassium ratio (Na/K). In 2000, spot urine samples, using the filter paper sampling technique, were taken from 50 female subjects aged 40 to 69, in each of 182 municipalities (95 urban and 87 rural), which covered all prefectures in Japan. While the CVD SMR levels correlated significantly with NaCI (r=0.296, p<0.o01) and Na/K (r=0.228, p=0.002), the SC SMR levels did not correlate with NaCI (r=0.108, p=0.148); instead, they significantly correlated with Na/K (r=0.169, p=0.022). It was concluded that the area-specific intake of NaCI could well account for the area difference in the CVD SMR rather than the SC SMR.
The aim of this study is to clarify how many twin registers are there in foreign countries. This paper also gives an overview of existing twin registers. Twin registers were searched using MEDLINE, with key word ?etwin register' or ?etwin registry' from 1997 to 2002. The international journal of ?eTwin Research' was also searched, from 1998 to 2002, to reinforce information. In our definition of a twin register, we did not impose any limitation as to sample size or depth of data. The results were following; in 749 articles we ascertained 56 twin registers in total. For the current overview, we included large population-based registers with more than 10, 000 pairs, as well as yet growing specific collections of less than a hundred pair. Twin registers have been exist in many European countries, such as Scandinavia, Germany, Belgium, the UK, Italy, The Netherlands, as well as many states of the United States and Australia. In Italy and several Asian countries, such as Sri Lanka, China, and Korea, a large nationwide register has also been under establishment. The aim of establishing twin register ranged from various researches in human genetics to maternal and child health. These findings supported that it is important to examine the establishment of twin register in Japan.