Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between social contact, life satisfaction (LSIK) and mental health (GDS) among rural elderly. Methods: Subjects were 1, 019 elderly people aged 65 years and older living in Nakijin-son, Okinawa. Of these subjects, we analyzed data from 767 persons who responded to an interview survey conducted in 1998. Social contact was assessed by frequency of contact with children living separately, relatives, friends, and neighbors. Multiple regression analysis was conducted in order to investigate the relationship between social contact, LSIK and GDS based on IADL levels. Results: Those with higher LSIK scores tended to have more frequent contact with relatives, friends, and neighbors in the higher IADL group. In the lower IADL group, however, only contact with neighbors contributed significantly to life satisfaction. GDS was significantly related to frequency of contact with relatives, friends, and neighbors in the higher IADL group. Moreover, GDS was significantly associated with contact with children living separately in the lower IADL group. Conclusions: The present findings suggest that the relationship between social contact, life
The dependence on a primary industry of local people declined in most rural areas in Japan with the changes of their lifestyle during the period of rapid economic growth. In a rural area near local city located in the eastern Yamanashi prefecture (Kamiohhata, Tsuru City), an interview survey was conducted on 80 households to clarify the changes of the use of natural resources available in forest with the changes of the subsistence activities. In accordance with the decline of sericulture, introduction of industrial materials, and fuel revolution, importance of gathering grass for animal feed, firewood, and fallen leaf for fertilizer decreased drastically from 1960 to 1980 in both number of households and area of collection. However, firewood and fallen leaf are still used for the specific purpose ("persistence" use) in 20 - 30% of subjected household which continues the cultivation of the self consumption crops. While, collection of wild plants for eating which has the factor of "pleasure" use declined in last 10 years. This decline could be explained by the degradation of natural environments close to the living area in the result of decrease in the opportunity of people contacting it after the period of rapid economic growth. It is necessary to manage the natural environments for guaranteeing both the amenity of people and regional biodiversity. For this purpose, the familiarity of people with the natural environments should be reconsidered from the viewpoint of "persistence" and "pleasure" uses of natural resources.
Children and adolescents with cancer experience multiple stressors, evertheless some function well or are "resilient." Focusing on resilience in childhood cancer patients and understanding why and how resilience develops during the cancer experience is of great value . This knowledge may provide information to health care professionals to facilitate intervention for promoting resilience and improving quality of life in adolescents with cancer . The purpose of thisarticle is to review the literature and to develop conceptual understanding related to resilience in adolescents with cancer. The literature review includes the history of resilience in childhood cancer patients, resilience as defined by Rutter, and a resilience model of adolescents with cancer. Also, coping strategies for hospitalization, coping strategies for cancer, and the self-sustaining process in adolescents with cancer are presented. The results of the literature review suggest that Hinds and Martin's the self-sustaining process is an useful model for understanding why and how adolescents with cancer develop their resilience . This model should also be focused on not only the developmental stages but also the cultural differences such as telling thename of disease and the length of hospitalization .