Many geographical studies relating to malignant neoplasm were carried out in the '70s. The mechanism of gene mutation with respect to malignant neoplasm has been clarified since the '90s. Understanding the geographical distribution of the mortality pattern may be helpful for the exploration of unknown factors concerning the onset of malignant neoplasms, since geographical factors are thought to influence gene mutation. To seek clues for the potential existence of these unknown factors, I examined the relationship between site-specific mortality from malignant neoplasms and geographical distribution for 46 countries. In addition, I tried to understand the characteristics of the Japanese mortality pattern in comparison to other countries. The numbers of deaths categorized by cause, sex and age, and the numbers of populations were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO) database. Factor analysis was employed for age-adjusted death rates to explore latent factors. Three factors were extracted for each sex. Males' Factor 1, characterized by leukaemia and neoplasms of the lung, colon, bladder, oral cavity, rectum and oesophagus, indicated a pattern similar to females' Factor 2. Eastern European countries may be mainly influenced by males' Factor 1. Females' Factor 1, characterized by neoplasms of the cervix uteri, liver, uterus and stomach, indicated a pattern that is comparatively similar to males' Factor 3. Central and southern American countries and Eastern Europe may be mainly influenced by females' Factor 1. The characteristics of the Japanese mortality pattern could be seen as intermediate between those for Westernized developed areas and less developed areas.
Objective: To clarify the psychosocial factors related to climacteric symptoms of Japanese women in Tokyo. Methods: Targeting 400 female Tokyo residents aged between 45 and 54, we conducted a mail-and-pick-up survey using self-recording questionnaire sheets in June 1999. The number of the subjects of the analysis was 280 (response rate: 70.0%). We carried out multiple regression analysis by using psychosocial and physiological factors as independent variables. For dependent variables, we used the total symptom point, a sum of 17 climacteric symptoms, as well as the points of a group of three symptom types obtained by factor analysis: vasomotor, neuropsychological and somatic. Results: Subjects with a spouse had a higher vasomotor symptom point than those without. Part-time workers had a lower total symptom point and a lower neuropsychological symptom point than non-working subjects. Subjects who participated in two or more social activities had a lower neuropsychological symptom point than non-participants. Those who strongly felt "menopause has a major impact on one's life" had a higher total symptom point and a higher somatic symptom point. Conclusions: As seen in previous studies, climacteric symptoms of Japanese women are often observed among women with negative attitudes toward menopause and the climacteric. A new finding was that climacteric symptoms are less seen among those with a spouse, part-time workers, and participants in two or more social activities.
Objectives: China and Japan have a common problem in that there will be a rapid increase in the elderly population in the near future . The purpose of this study is to find out the differences which are about the mortality rate between Fujian and Japan. It is expected that the study will contribute to the establishment of the health policy and health promotion of the elderly. Methods: In the case of China, we compiled and calculated the 1997 death notice data of individuals aged 65 years and over in Fujian Province . The result of mortality rate and age-adjusted mortality was compared with the 1997 Japanese population vital statistics materials. Thus, we obtained the mortality patterns and proportions of individual causes of death among individuals aged 65 years and over. Results: In both sexes, the mortality rate among elderly people was higher in Fujian than in Japan. In both Fujian and Japan, malignant neoplasms, cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) and heart diseases were the major causes of death, with these three comprising approximately 52-60% of deaths among elderly individuals. The mortality rates from bronchitis and suicide were remarkably higher in Fujian than in Japan . Upon analyzing site-specific cancer mortality rates in each region, the mortality rate from esophageal cancer was higher in Fujian; the mortality rates from cancers of the lung, colon, breast, and uterus were higher in Japan; and the mortality rates from stomach and liver cancers were similar in Fujian and in Japan. Conclusions: These differences in mortality rates and proportions of causes of death between Fujian and Japan are thought to be attributable to differences in the available medical services and differences in the levels of risk factors including life-style and environment for each disease. Further study focusing on the death notices data will be necessary .