Background: Traditionally, a father's role in child care has been indirect because of his re sponsibility as financial provider. Today, both men and women are questioning this tradition and expressing support for equality starting with infant care. Yet little is known about how fathers' perceptions of infants compared to mothers' perceptions. It is generally understood that perception of parents may affect children's cognitive, social, and physical development .Aim: The purpose of this study was to describe fathers' and mothers' perceptions of their newborns to identify infants who may be at risk for future psychological and physical health problems.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive research was conducted in central and southern part of Japan in 1998. A convenience sample of 107 father and mother couples completed the 5 item Modified Broussard Neonatal Perception Inventory (MBNPI) during the hospital stay following parturition and again at 1 month post partum .Results: From the proportions of parents' perceptions of their infants as not better than av erage, it was considered that the babies of 21% fathers and 28% mothers may be at risk; Fur thermore, the 9% of infants who were perceived negatively by both mother and father may be at high risk for developmental deviations. Comparing fathers' and mothers' perceptions, there were no statistically significant differences by quantitative analysis .Conclusions: The MBNPI is a simple effective tool for early intervention for fathers and mothers at risk. Valid assessment of infants at risk is foundational for effective and compassionate nursing interventions.
Twins tend to lag behind singletons in their language development, though the causes of this are as yet unknown. Language development of twins is typically evaluated using the stan dards for the singletons in Japan, and the results often suggest that twins suffer from poor de velopment. The present study was performed to resolve this situation. The subjects were 937 (maternal associations group) and 1092 (school applicants group) twin mothers and their twin children of known zygosity. Relative to general population norms, twins in the maternal associations group were about one to two months delayed in terms of age at first spoken word. Nevertheless, about 95% of twins have started speaking at least one word at 18 to 19 months, as sin gletons do. According to maternal reports from the school applicants group, monozygotic males, compared with singletons, showed the largest delay throughout childhood; this delay was partly attributed to the effect of 'twin language'. Language development was more similar to t at of monozygotic pairs than that of dizygotic pairs. In conclusion, the results of present study suggested that language development of twins partly differ from that of singletons and that estimation of language development specifically for twins are needed.
The somatotype and skeletal maturity of 801 Korean-Chinese children aged 11.60-18.11 years in Longjing of Northern China have been assessed by the Heath-Carter and TW2/TW3 methods. Their physique was similar to that of Japanese children . The endomorphy was prominent during 12 to 16 years in girls. The mesomorphy and the ectomorphy were remarkable dur ing 14 to 16 years in boys. The typical somatotype was the mesomorphy for boys and was the endomorphy for girls. Their TW3 skeletal maturities were also similar to that for Japanese children, but slightly differed from the recent European standards. This study clarified that endomorphic and mesomorphic children were early maturer skeletally, while ectomorphic children were late maturer skeletally for the sexes.