The risk of female genital mutilations (FGM) on HIV/AIDS infection was evaluated at the Ethiopian and Somalian refugee camp in Djibouti, horn of Africa. Sixty-one women out of 63 (96.8%), were mutilated of their genitals. Infibulations (FGM type III, WHO classification) were commonly practiced on 72.1 % (44/61), and clitoridectomy and/or excision of the labia (FGM type I and II) was performed on 27.8% (17/61) of the women . Fifty-six women (88.9%, 56/63) consented to give blood for the investigation of HIV/AIDS antibody . The Sunna type of FGM (type I and II) was common in Ethiopian women (80%, 16/20) Pharaonic type of FGM (type III) was common in Somalian women (95.3%, 41/43) . No HIV positive case was found in Somalian women, in contrast to prevalence of 37.5 % (6/16) in Ethiopian women . Pharaonic FGM (infibulations) may have a protective role against HIV/AIDS since it decrease sexual activity before marriage. Female genital mutilations are not recommended because it increases other health problems-gynecological infection, maternal complication during delivery and mental trauma. The effort to eliminate the female genital mutilations should be organized to promote reproductive health in Africa.
The relationship between eating habits and obesity in preschool children remains uncertain . The health of children in relation to eating habits needs to be studied in order to reduce the prevalence of obesity in childhood. This study aims to examine the relationship between eating habits and obesity in preschool children. The subjects consisted of 2408 preschool children (3 to 6 years of age) living in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. The prevalence of obesity was based on age and sex-specific cut-off points recently proposed by the Children Obesity Workings Group of the International Obesity Task Force. A logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between obesity and eating habits by calculating the odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. Eating habits such as not chewing frequently (OR: 2.55, 95% CI: 1.53-4.26) and rarely playing during mealtime (OR: 3.14, 95% CI: 1.37-7.21) had higher odds of obesity compared to the reference group. Childhood obesity seems to be associated with fewer chews per bite and being less active during mealtime. Particular attention should therefore be paid to these eating habits of preschool children in order to prevent obesity.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in the characteristics of patients treated by the two different kinds of medical services. This research was based on a comparative analysis on the health beliefs and behaviors of patients visiting oriental and western medical clinics. Thirty-nine oriental and fifty-eight western clinics were selected for the study, all of which are primary care institutions, located in Busan, Korea. One hundred and fifty six patients were from oriental clinics, and two hundred and forty one patients were from western clinics. The data from the questionnaires filled in by those patients was analyzed by the SPSS 11.5J, with a x2-test and a Mann-Whitney U test analysis. The research findings can be summarized as follows: First, more Buddhists, and patients with musculoskeletal diseases or endocrine/circulatory diseases tended to utilize the oriental clinics. While more Christians, and patients with respiratory diseases or eye/ear diseases tended to visit the western clinics (p < 0.05). Second, 40% of the patients consulted several health facilities for the same diseases in the past month, mainly between primary health care facilities. Most of the patients visiting the oriental clinics had used the combination of oriental and western medical treatments. Third, different perceptions towards oriental medicine emerged depending on the patient groups that were compared. Patients treated in the oriental clinics were more likely to believe that their treatment is more effective against all diseases with rapid results, more scientific and less expensive, and finally causes fewer side effects (p < 0.01) . They also prefer the current type of medical treatment for any diseases (p < 0.05). More patients were satisfied with the oriental clinics (p < 0.05). Overall, this research suggests that patients choose to visit clinics according to their own health-related beliefs and values. It also argues that they tend to take into consideration possible positive effects which the combined use of oriental and western medicine might bring about.