This study investigated the characteristics of recipients received medical check-ups and factors associated with impaired fasting glycemia (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) using cross-sectional and follow-up studies. In 1992 and 2000, 1, 112 and 849 subjects (aged 22-79 years), respectively, received check-ups at a private hospital in suburban Tokyo and participated in a cross-sectional study. The follow-up study consisted of 210 subjects who had been examined in both 1992 and 2000. The prevalences were NGT 76.4%, IFG 2.0%, IGT 15.3%, T2DM 6.3% in 1992, and 68.4%, 3.4%, 18.7%, 9.5% in 2000, respectively . Subjects in 2000 showed significantly higher mean age and BMI than those in 1992. In the follow-up study, 77.1% of NGT subjects in 1992 maintained the same status (NGT-NGT group), 16.3% progressed to a borderline-type blood glucose status (NGT-Border group), and 6.6% developed T2DM in 2000. Of 37 subjects with borderline-type in 1992, 67.6% of them maintained the borderline status in 2000. On comparison of the NGT-NGT and NGT-Border groups, elevated GGT and UA in 1992 were associated with the development of IFG/IGT status in 2000. In addition, there were significant interaction effects of time and blood glucose status in SBP, AST, GGT, and TG. In conclusion, it was suggested that GGT and UA might be predictors for conversion to borderline-type blood glucose status.
This study aimed to examine the factors that affect the health status and mortality of el derly people who live on isolated islands in the Setouchi Sea of Japan. A retrospective cohort study was conducted from 1998 to 2003, and data was collected from fact-finding examinations that 413 elderly subjects, who were at least 65 years of age, completed. These subjects were divided into two groups: 1) subjects who had died during the five year study; 2) subjects who still were alive after the five year study. 46 subjects of the initial 413 subjects died during the course of the study. The results of our study were twofold. First, the data from our study indicated that a patient's age, amount of work, l kilometer walking ability, score on the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence, smoking habits and need to check his/her blood pres sure, were all contributing factors to mortality. Second, our results suggested that periodic health check-ups and social support do not decrease the chances of mortality among elderly people; likewise, less frequent health check-ups and a lack of social support do not increase the chances of mortality. Upon examining the factors and their relationships that affect the health status and mortality of elderly people on isolated islands, we concluded that an elderly person's mobility and performance scores on the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence are strongly related to his/her mortality.
In order to understand the behaviors of soluble chemical species at the confluence of the river water and water supply process, the Watarase, Tone, and Edo River System was studied in regard to the inorganic ion. This river system starts from the base of the Ashio copper mine and ends at Tokyo Bay. Along the rivers, there are 14 local municipalities in Gunma, Saitama, Ibaragi and Chiba Prefectures, as well as Tokyo . This area is center of the Kanto plain and includes the main source of water pollution from human activities . Moreover, the water of the river system is the source water for human activities in Kanto area. Also, we analyzed some chemical species to clarify water environmental status and outline the problems of water environment in research area. Water samples from 18 river sites and 42 water faucets at public facilities from Watarase, Tone, and Edo basin which include 14 local municipalities were collected and the degree of contamination was analyzed. The chemical species in river and top wa er were analyzed by ion chromatograph. Overall, it was thought that the Cl- of river water in the Watarase, Tone, Edo Basin contributed more large effect to water pollution than NO32- did . It was revealed the present water filtration plant procedures change the mineral balance of water. But, a good correlation in some ion elements between the river and tap water was found . For example, the correlation coefficients of Mg2+ and Ca2+ between them were 0 .912 and 0.969, respec tively. Also, it was confirmed the concentrations of Ca2+ and Na+ showed characteristic changes as the functions of location. These results may be important in the understanding of distribution behaviors of ionic chemical elements in this area.