Eating disorders and fictitious injuries are increasing among women in Japan. It is thoughtthat relationship between mother and daughter affect to these behavior. There are no scales toevaluate the relationship. The purpose of this study was to develop a scale for measuring the rela tionship between mother and daughter and to examine the reliability and validity of the scale. Across-sectional study using self administrated questionnaire in a class-room setting was conductedon November 2005 among women's university students. The questionnaire consisted of questionson the relationship between mother and daughter. Of the 143 students who participated in thisstudy, 142 students (mean: 20.3 years old) answered completed questionnaire to analyze. As a result of the factor analysis, 4 factors and 16-items; intimacy (6-items), ascendance (4-items), acceptance (3-items), submission (3-items) were extracted. It was shown that this scale had the reliability with Cronbach's Alpha. (=0.90). The validity was supported, since the score of this scale correlatedpositively with subject criteria and the score were significantly greater in the group whohad a better relationship with their mother than in the group who didn't have. These findingssupport that the scale of relationships between mother and daughter has reliability and validity.This scale is more useful than existing scales like PBI (Parental Bounding Instrument) to evaluatephysical and mental problem such as eating disorders and fictitious injuries among young woman.
It cannot be overlooked that the outflow of body fluid from cadavers may cause infection.Workers in the funeral industry are therefore at the risk of infection. The purpose of this study isto clarify and set hypothesis on the kind of risks of infection from cadavers. In addition, we investigatewhat problems in relation to infection funeral workers have in their daily work. We investigated six funeral companies from January to March 2004. Data were collected byinterviewing funeral workers about problems in infection prevention, employee's health care andthe possibility of infection from cadavers. Next, we analyzed obtained contents by the KJ Method. We have extracted four categories by the KJ method: 1) the actual situation of funeral workand the adopted measures for infection prevention, 2) the risk of infection, 3) the lack of providinginformation from medical workers and 4) knowledge and approaches concerning the infectionof funeral workers. We suggested the possibility that funeral workers might be exposed to infection through contactto the body fluid from cadavers. Five hypotheses were derived from the results. 1) The bodyfluid from cadavers may be sufficient to infection. 2) Funeral workers have the danger of infectionfrom cadavers. 3) Funeral workers have insufficient knowledge concerning infection from cadavers.4) Providing information on infection to the funeral workers is necessary. 5) Nursesmight not be effectively stopping the body fluid by "mortuary care".