The purpose of this study is to comprehend the correlation between the conditions of experience in sexual behavior and the sex education needs of high school students. We conducted a cross-sectional study in January-February 2004 using self-response sheetstargeting 681 students (15-16 years old) attending three public high schools in Ibaraki Prefecture and received valid responses from 627. The subjects of the analysis were divided into three groups depending on the conditions of experience in sexual behavior. We found that, as sexual behavior becomes more active, there are more pressing needs for sexual behavior related information such as "contraceptive methods" and "sexually transmitted infectious diseases" while lessinterest is shown in "male and female psychology" or "interaction between the sexes, " It became clear that the source of sex-related information is shifting from textbooks and school instruction to friends and news media. Although 30-40% of the subjects responded that they wanted to know more about the "nature of love" and "interaction between the sexes, " that is hardly handled in sex education. This suggests that needs and the sources of information on sex-related issues also differ.Judging from this result, if instruction in sex education had more varied content depending on experience in sexual behavior, there would likely be a strong possibility of being able to respond better to student needs. Though the primary issues handled in current sex education are probably centered in the provision of medical knowledge, it can be assumed that high school students want to know more essential matters as well as specific methods and it would be desirable for sex education to provide more multifaceted information.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to develop a scale for measuring view of marriageamong young people and to examine the reliability and validity of the scale. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using self-administrated questionnaire was conducted onFebruary 2005 among 368 unmarried university students between the ages from 18 to 24 in Okinawa.The 25-items were developed via a literature study and in-depth interview university students. RESULT: As a result of the factor analysis, 6 factors and 22-items; life enrichment throughchildren (4-items), interest in marriage (4-items), happy family (3-items), sense of sacrifice and burden(5-items), marriage life contentment (3-items), independence (3-items) were extracted. It was shown that the Marriage-oriented scale was internally consistent from Cronbach's Alphas of .75. As for the validity, internal validity was supported as the score of sacrifice and burden correlated negatively with other 5 factors. The factor was constituted 5-items which meant negative attitude for marriage. The construct validity was supported as the score of ATM-scale and each factor correlated positively with 2 subjective criteria for marriage and the means of ATM-scale were significantly higher with 2 other criteria about attitude toward marriage. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support that the ATM-scale has sufficient reliability and validity. It suggests the importance of evaluation from various aspects for the view of marriage.
Introduction: Over the past several years, differences and/or inequality within Japanese society have been pointed out from various study areas. The actual status of variations in differences and/or inequality in the economy and variations in health indicators was determined objectively from statistics collected in Japan. We forecast the differences and/or inequality in the economy and mortality rate in the future, and discuss countermeasures for health impairment due to economic inequality as a social epidemiologic study. Materials and methods: Gini coefficients, which show economic inequality, and mortality rateswere collected from statistical data published in Japan. An article in which the relationship between economic inequality and difference in health was noted and others were cited.Results: The Gini coefficients for inequality in income under 35 years of age and in consumptionof the thirties and the forties increased recently in Japan. Mortality rate for all causes ofmales aged 30-34 years increased and that for suicide increased notably except aged people in recent years. Discussion: The Gini coefficient increased in adults recently in Japan. The reason for this isbecause enterprises reduced the numbers of regular employees, whose salaries are higher, and increased the numbers of non-regular employees such as part-time and dispatched workers, whosesalaries are lower, in order to decrease labour cost after the bubble economy collapsed in 1990.Age-adjusted mortality rate for all causes and mortality rates for all causes by age decreased consistently in Japan after World War II. Recently, however, the mortality rate for all causes in males aged 30-34 years has increased. This indicates that socialization of anti-risk countermeasures are not sufficient in Japanese society in a recession, demonstrating the existence of a defective social system and/or of notable problems in the management of social systems in Japan. It should be recognized that if the situation is neglected and effective countermeasures are not taken, social chaos may result. Thus effective policies introducing sufficient anti-risk countermeasures are necessary to reduce the mortality rate.