Objectives : To clarify the acceptance and pattern of the Malay traditional and modern medicine in a northern Malaysian rural community and their perceptions towards these medical systems.Methodology : A structured questionnaire survey of Malay residents was conducted in Sedaka, a village in Northern Peninsular Malaysia. The questionnaire requested socio-demographic data, and con sultations with medical practitioners and Malay traditional healers (bomoh). Two focus group discus sions were conducted to explore the reasons for using or not using modern or traditional medical system.Results : 383 respondents answered the questionnaire. The mean age of the respondents was 28.5 ± 7.4 (SD). Almost everyone (96.1%) had ever consulted bomoh. There was no significant association between consultation and socio-democraphic data. In recent consultation, 73.5% received only modern treatment, 8.8% went bomoh only, and 17.6% consulted both medical practitioners and bomoh. In focus group discussions, several reasons were revealed that people prefer to utilize traditional or modern medical system.Discussion It was clarified that many rural Malays utilized modern system, as still having traditional belief. Rural Malays perceived that the traditional medical system covered overall matters, while the modern medical system were partial. The group utilizing the traditional medical system also consulted other medical systems, if needed, whereas the group utilizing the modern medical system visited only modern system. Greater cooperation of the traditional and modern medical systems-as shown by the emer gency of integrated medicine elsewhere-may bring about improved healthcare for the rural community with higher level of patient satisfaction and community participation.
Background Considerable wisdom concerning sex and reproduction had been inherited as empirical rules after many generations or as "inherited wisdom" before the healthcare system was established. The purpose of this study was to examine, from the viewpoint of intergenerational inheritance of wisdom, the correlation between the mother-daughter relationship and inheritance of wisdom (concerning sex and reproduction) by focusing on mother-daughter relationships. Methods : A self-administered questionnaire was given to 359 female students of two private women's universities in Tokyo in January 2006 ; valid responses were obtained from 354 subjects. We used the "mother-daughter relationship scale" to quantitatively evaluate the mother-daughter relationship. Subjects were questioned about inherited wisdom, namely, if they had heard of experiences and positive stories about sex and reproduction from their mothers, in 12 items in the binary forced-choice method. Univariable and bivariable analyses were conducted to understand the status of inherited wisdom and to clarify the relationship between the items and the score on mother-daughter relationship scale, respectively. Results and discussion : Many subjects had heard from their mothers how to deal with menstruation and the mother's experience of pregnancy, delivery, and raising the subject, but had never been told any positive stories about menstruation, pregnancy and delivery. A significant correlation was observed between the score on the mother-daughter relationship scale and the 12 items concerning inherited wisdom. No correlation was observed between inherited wisdom and whether the mother and daughter lived together, namely, the physical distance, suggesting that a good mother-daughter relationship with inherited wisdom involves a strong mental closeness that is characterized by intimacy and acceptance.
A basic concept of Health Promotion is that health can be influenced and formed by diverse determinants existing in life. The activities of the "Healthy Municipality" project, in which Health Promotion is actualized in the local municipality setting, encourage people to control such determinants and improve health through collective actions. Currently, a considerable amount of research findings have indicated that collective actions may be established with a greater degree of ease in communities with well-accumulated social factors, such as institutions, networks, social mechanisms, trust, and norm. These social factors are known as "Social Capital". Thus, a "Healthy Municipality" project, which requires collective actions, can be designed through the introduction of the concept of Social Capital. The present article reviews basic knowledge on Social Capital, and demonstrates, as an example being developed with the concept, the Healthy Municipalities Project that has been implemented in the poor rural sociies in the northeast Brazil.