Physical activity patterns were investigated in ten elderly men (mean age 72.1 years) living on a remote isolated island that has undergone a simultaneous rapid decrease in population and rapid growth of the elderly population. Acceleration monitoring, recorded every two minutes, was conducted for each subject on seven consecutive days to determine their total daily energy expenditure (TEE). Anthropometry, blood pressure, and handgrip strength measurements were made. Consequently, four men were judged as obese and six as hypertensive. According to a Japanese standard reference, the mean daily physical activity level (PAL) of the subjects was categorized as moderately low. By contrast, the mean daily step frequency (STEP) exceeded the national standard average (4, 787 steps/day) for the same age-sex group. Moreover, six men exceeded the target value for elderly men (6, 700 steps/day). Intra-day variation in the physical activity intensities measured every two hours reflected the subjects' lifestyles;however, no particular tendency was observed in the daily variation in the PAL. All the subjects were retired from regular employment, and no longer worked on a schedule. Consequently, no significant difference was observed in PALS between weekdays and weekends. Bland and Altman analysis clarified that the TEE calculated using the accelerometer was underestimated, which supports previous studies. The significant relationships between the physical activity indices (PAL and STEP) and blood pressure or handgrip strength suggest that walking andpromoting physical fitness have important roles in maintaining and increasing PALS in the elderly. Physical activity may be a key factor in preventing hypertension in the elderly.
本研究ではWebを利用した心理的we11-being向上プログラムの形成的評価を小規模サンプルを用いて行うことを量的とした.対象者は研究者の機縁にてリクルーティングを行った28名の産業労働者で,prepostデザインを用いた.プログラム内容の評価には,受講者にcomprehensiveness(わかりやすさ),informativeness(役立ち感),interestingness(興味深さ),intention to act(行動への意思),self-efficacybelief(自己効力感)の5変数を用い,受講者に自己評価してもらった.また,プログラムアウトカムである受講者の心理的well-beingの把握には,心理的well-being邦訳版(43項量)を用い,プログラム介入前とプログラム終了後(介入後)の2時点で測定し,検討した.すべての調査項量はweb上で回答してもらった.その結果,8割以上の対象者がプログラム内容を肯定的に評価し,心理的we11-beingがプログラム介入後有意に向上していることが確かめられた.また,プログラム内容の自己評価とアウトカムである心理的well-beingの関連を検討した結果,intention to act(行動への意思)とself-efficacy belief(自己効力感)がアウトカムに影響する要因であることが明らかになった.以上のことから,本プログラムの有効性の可能性が示唆され,今後はコントロール群を用いた,より大規模な集団を対象に本プログラムの有効性を検討する必要があることが示された.
As the aging society is developing all over the world quickly, the problems related to health and longevity become important and persistent. The purpose of this study was to compare the demographical status between senior citizens in Xinjiang, China and in Okinawa and Nagano, Japan, where are well-known as longevity areas, and nature and culture are extremely different. We used Japanese national census for 1985-2000 and Chinese national census for 1982-2000. Chi-square test and life expectancy of survival analysis were performed to compare the proportion of 65 years or more and the centenarian people per 100, 000 and life expectancy between China (Xinjiang) and Japan (Okinawa, Nagano). The following results were obtained 1) The proportions of the centenarian people in Xinjiang in 1982 were more than those in Japan in 1985 for both men and women. In 2000, the proportions of centenarian people in Xinjiang were more in men, and less in women (except for the figure based on population aged 65years or more) compared to those in Japan. 2) In Xinjiang, 2000, the proportion of centenarian people became greater, and men were still dominant to women, but the life expectancy for each age group was shorter in men than those in women. In Japan, both proportion of centenarian people and life expectancy were more in women than those in men. 3) In 2000, the life expectancy of 0-79 years old men in Nagano was 0.1-7.7 years longer than that in Xinjiang for each year group, but the ? 80 years old men was 1.3-2.5 years shorter in Nagano than that in Xinjiang. The life expectancy of 0-89 years old women was 0.5-12.5 years longer in Okinawa than in Xinjiang for each year group, and that of ? 90 years old women was inversed with 0.8-1.2 years between the two.