There seems to be little agreement on relationship between mental health status and overtime work. The present study was therefore conducted in order to determine whether depression status is affected by overtime work or job stress. Participants in this study were 805 full-time non-shift employees (mean age : 39.2±9.6 years) of a manufacturing company in Japan. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires comprised of sociodemographic and lifestyle items. In addition, participants completed the Japanese version of the Job Content Questionnaire and the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale. Questionnaire data indicated that 293 (36.4%) participants had depression. Sociodemographic and lifestyle factors that were significantly associated with depression according to χ2 tests were age, marital state, exercise habits, sleeping duration, job stress, job support from supervisors or coworkers, physical load, and postural load. In stepwise logistic regression analysis, high strain jobs were more likely to be significantly associated with depression than active jobs. Furthermore, lack of job support from supervisors or coworkers and high postural load were more common among participants with depression. No significant association was observed between depression and overtime working. In high strain jobs, overtime work was significant associated with depression ; however, this association was not observed for low strain, passive, or active jobs. Among the participants with a high strain jobs, odds ratio for depression of more than 60 hours overtime working per month was 10.14 (95%CI, 2.22-46.35) as compared with less than 30 hours overtime working per month in stepwise logistic regression analysis. In conclusion, overtime work was found to be associated with increased risk of depression for employees characterized as having high strain jobs.
The aim of this study was to clarify the use of health, medical and welfare services by patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and its related factors in Japan, seven years after implementation of Japan public nursing-care insurance system. A cross-sectional survey using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire was conducted from February to April 2007, and targeted 3500 of the total 5513 members from 14 of the 47 branches of the Japan Parkinson’s Disease Association (JPDA). Data were analyzed using χ2 test and t-test. Response rate of the survey was 52.0% (1813/3485). Participants who required higher levels of care reported the need for a greater degree of service usage as well as programs designed to minimize care needs. However, among those undergoing ambulatory rehabilitation, the proportion of participants who required low levels of care was high. Patients with few cohabitants use the various services quite heavily, even if they require low levels of care. Usage of services increased further in patients who required high levels of care and who had few cohabitants. Among those undergoing ambulatory rehabilitation, there was a trend toward high usage of services when cohabitant number was high. This study clarified the use of health, medical and welfare services and related issues among patients with PD in Japan, seven years after implementation of Japan public nursing-care insurance system.