The purpose of the study was to clarify the effects of care environment on health status of caregivers engaged in at-home medical care for their family member. Twenty-eight female caregivers were surveyed three times, i. e. one week, one month, and two months after discharge of the family member, using a questionnaire containing the Japanese version of General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ12) and Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview (J-ZBI). Concentrations of salivary cortisol were also measured in 28 caregivers. At one week and one month after discharge, concentrations of salivary cortisol and GHQ12 and J-ZBI scores in 28 subjects were higher as compared with previous reports in the literature. Levels of salivary cortisol significantly decreased during the period from one month to two months after discharge (p<0.05), whereas GHQ12 and J-ZBI scores did not change significantly, suggesting that their stress were physiologically decreased although psychologically they were still in high stress status. Decrease in salivary cortisol was observed greatly in the caregivers with social support and/or at lower burden of care giving. Also, scores of GHQ-12 and J-ZBI remained higher in subjects without social support or at higher burden of care giving during the study period ; GHQ-12 reflected psychological aspects of care giving stress, whereas J-ZBI were related to physical factors of care environment.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between female's employment, lifestyle, and self-rated health depending on the diversification of employment status. We analyzed the responses of 798 female workers to a questionnaire survey conducted in the major educational institutions in Japan. The respondent completed self-administered questionnaires comprised of lifestyle items, employee satisfaction, self-rated health, subjective symptoms, sickness and treatment. The percentages of full-time, part-time, and temporary workers were 60.3, 20.1 and 19.7%, respectively. Based on the χ2 test and residual analysis, part-time and temporary workers showed a significantly high health practice index (p<0.001) compared with the full-time workers. And temporary workers showed a significantly a more positive self-rating for health (p<0.01) compared with the full-time workers. With multiple logistic analysis adjusted for work-related factors, family and health conditions, the positive self-rating for health was associated with a high health practice index (Odds ratio (OR) : 2.80, 95% Confidence interval (95% CI) : 2.04-3.86) and temporary workers (OR : 1.58, 95%CI : 1.03-2.43). These findings suggest that the differences in the lifestyle and self-rated health are related to differences in the employment status among female workers. In order to promote self-rated health, it is important to improve the individual lifestyle influenced by the aspects of employment status.
This report discusses the use of examinations and rates of positive findings for blood lipids and blood sugar tests in periodical health examination in workplace. The rates of use of examinations for females were higher than those for males in the blood lipid examination of those aged 20-34 years and in the blood sugar examination of those aged 25-39 years. The rates in companies with 50 or more workers were higher than those with 50 less in examinations of blood lipid for those aged 20-29 years in males and 20-24 years in females, and in blood sugar examinations for males aged 20-24 years. Those rates in the transportation industries were the lowest among the 5 industries in workers under 39 years old for the blood lipid examination and blood sugar examination in both sexes. The rates of positive findings for blood lipid level and blood sugar level in males were higher than females, and were higher in companies with less than 50 workers compared with those with 50 or more. By type of industry, the rates of positive findings in the transportation industry were the greatest among the 5 industries tested. Blood examinations for workers less than 40-year-old were not always carried out in the group with high rates of positive findings. It was important that the examination were done selectively in the group with higher rates.