Objective : For the purpose of improving the education curriculum of the Department of Nursing, the present study structurally examine factors affecting undergraduate nursing students' intention to provide smoking cessation support. Methods : We conducted an anonymous questionnaire survey of 322 undergraduate nursing students, and obtained 298 valid responses. Structural equation modeling was performed in order to identify factors related to intention to provide smoking cessation support. Results : The percentages of male and female students were 4.4% and 95.6%, respectively. The average age was 20.3 years old, and 5.4% were smokers. The results of structural equation modeling demonstrated that their intention to provide smoking cessation support was elevated by : (1) more positive attitudes toward smoking cessation support based on higher awareness of smoking as a health professional, which was related to their own smoking choice and their increasing grade level, and (2) elevation of self-efficacy in supporting smoking cessation, which related to their increasing grade level and increased opportunities to learn about smoking cessation support. Discussion : The present findings support the suggestion to encourage undergraduate nursing students to quit smoking, and to provide early education regarding smoking cessation support for the intention to support patients' smoking cessation efforts.
The purpose of this study was to assess the structure of risk perception in mothers who had babies, especially mothers of family with food allergies. The survey was conducted between April 2004 and June 2004, and mothers attending health checkups for their 3-year-olds were chosen by stratified random sampling from 120 municipalities in Japan. The survey consisted of a total of 9 main questions. There were 12 items associated with risk perception. The factor analysis was done referring to methods of the previous research. As a result, overall, these items were divided into two factors (tuberculosis, second-hand smoke, AIDS, SARS) and (food allergies, food additives, genetically modified foods, BSE, bird flu, mercury in fish, endocrine disrupters, and dioxin). The items were divided into three factors for mothers of family with food allergies (second-hand smoke, food allergies, food additives, genetically modified foods, endocrine disrupters, dioxin) and (BSE, bird flu, mercury in fish) and (tuberculosis, AIDS, SARS). Mothers of family without food allergies had the same structure of risk perception as that of all mothers as a whole. These findings suggest that risk perception needs to be considered when communicating risk to mothers of family with food allergies.
Societal health patterns result from the interaction of human behavior and the characteristics of natural, social and cultural environments. Knowing the powerful influence that the larger society exerts is crucial in order to identify and manage the factors that help determine healthy development outcomes. Low or persistently low fertility levels are a compelling health issue as a whole because they threaten the long-term and balanced sustainability of modern societies. Adequate actions are crucial to reverse low fertility levels and it is imperative to understand and confront the causal ecological factors, and foreseeable results of ageing populations. This report discusses the presentations of national trends in low fertility levels in Japan, Korea and Switzerland and highlights their development and policy implications. Japan's low-fertility transition is examined with reference to marriage patterns, labor force participation, and personal sexual behavior patterns. Among the 33 countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Korea has the lowest fertility level, thereby raising contrasting views of a “disappearing” country or one of “opportunity and change”. Switzerland has a pattern of low but stable fertility, with changes occurring at the personal and couple levels that are linked primarily to economic imperatives. Four underlying cardinal points will play a role in further affecting fertility trends and vice versa, all of which have ramifications for nations seeking to achieve a healthy and sustainable development.