Purpose : To analyze the relationship between sex-site-specific cancer screening rate and participation rate in volunteer and social activities for Japanese prefectures, and to examine the community based approach to improve cancer screening rate. Methods : We collected data on 8 items including sex-site-specific cancer screening rate in 2007 and on 9 items for participation rate in volunteer and social activities from prefectural census and official statistics obtained from the National Government. By using ordinal scale, cluster analysis was used to examine latent variables for structural equation modeling. Spearman's correlational analyses and structural equation modeling were used to analyze the data in both males and females. Results : The cluster analysis divided volunteer and social activities into four types. Structural equation modeling showed that, in both males and females, every site-specific, such as stomach, colorectal, lung, breast and cervix, cancer screening rate had positive relationship with communities that ‘rational political participation.’ The model also demonstrated that some site-specific cancer screening rates were indirectly connected to communities that ‘civic virtue’ through the ‘rational political participation’ and communities that ‘efficient public governance’ through ‘effective governance.’ Conclusion : Several relationships between site-specific cancer screening rate and participation rate in volunteer and social activities were identified in this study. The results, however, revealed the importance of volunteer and social activities to promote health-conscious communities toward the ultimate goal of increasing cancer screening rate.
Purpose : To determine whether systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and body mass index (BMI) are associated with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Methods : This cross-sectional study analyzed health examination data obtained between 2001 and 2004 from 1,113 Japanese individuals (age range, 28-79 years) who had not undergone any ocular surgery or medical treatment for hypertension, ocular hypertension, and glaucoma. The association of SBP, DBP, and BMI with IOP were evaluated by multiple regression analyses and analyses of covariance. Results : Multiple-regression analysis showed that SBP, DBP, and BMI had a significantly positive association with IOP in both sexes (P<0.05 with the exception of BMI in model 2 for women where P=0.06). Analysis of covariance found that the adjusted mean IOP increased with increasing SBP, DBP, and BMI in both sexes (P for trend<0.05). Conclusions : SBP, DBP, and BMI were positively associated with IOP in middle-aged and older Japanese men and women. Therefore, management of blood pressure and improvement of obesity might be especially important to Japanese patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension, as they have a higher incidence of normal tension glaucoma than Western populations. Key words : intraocular pressure, blood pressure, body mass index, epidemiology, glaucoma