Using a quasi-experimental design, this study examined the educational effect of international exchange on food/nutrition and English in Japanese elementary schools. One hundred eight students in the 6th grade were assigned to the exchange group (n=38) or the non-exchange group (n=70). All students took three food/nutrition classes in English before the exchange. The exchange country was Korea and three surveys were conducted : baseline, pre-exchange, and post-exchange. The attitudes, self-efficacy, and behavior about food/nutrition and English communication were examined. The results were as follows : 1) Regarding interest in learning, statistically favorable changes were observed only in the exchange group between the baseline and subsequent surveys. 2) As for attitudes, self-efficacy, and behavior about food/nutrition between the baseline and pre-exchange surveys, there were favorable changes in attitudes (p=0.003) and behavior (p=0.009) in the exchange group. 3) The exchange group gave more positive responses regarding nutritional balance than the non-exchange group on the pre-exchange surveys (attitudes, p=0.008 ; self-efficacy, p=0.029 ; behavior, p=0.011). 4) The exchange group showed a significantly higher interest rate in Korean meals after the exchange (p=0.049). The results showed that a food/nutrition program taught in English with an international exchange deepens students' interest in learning about food/nutrition and English.
Command-control operators (CCOs) are firefighters who work in the command-control center and have important roles in the supporting both firefighting and pre-hospital care. The purpose of this study is to investigate the levels of job stress, burnout, and depression among CCOs compared with other firefighters (firefighting unit, ambulance unit, and rescue unit) and to analyze these relationships. Fifteen CCOs and 628 firefighters were all male Japanese and employed in X City Fire Bureau in February 2010. We administered the brief job stress questionnaire, the Japanese version of the Pines Burnout Measure Revised (20 items), and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Results showed that social support, burnout, and depression were worse among CCOs than among firefighters. Analyses of partial correlation adjusted for age showed that poor work environment was significantly correlated with both burnout (r=0.68, p<0.01) and depression (r=0.69, p<0.01) in CCOs. In addition, poor family/friend support was significantly correlated with burnout (r=0.64, p<0.05), and poor supervisor support was significantly correlated with depression (r=0.67, p<0.01) in CCOs. Our results suggest that poor work environment and poor social supports among CCOs might associate with aggravation of their burnout and depression. Key words : firefighters, command-control operators, job stress, burnout, depression
Objectives : To evaluate factors associated with consumption of carbohydrate-rich foods and protein-rich foods among both double and single orphans aged 10-19 years old in an underserved setting in Nigeria. Methods : Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the associations between sociodemographic characteristics of 658 orphans and their carbohydrate-rich foods and protein-rich foods consumption. Results : More than half of the orphans interviewed (59.7%) consumed carbohydrate-rich foods 3 times per day, and “living with mother” was one of the factors contributing to consumption of carbohydrate-rich foods (odds ratio : 1.473 ; 95% confidence interval : 1.039, 2.089 ; P=0.030). However, the only factor that contributed significantly to protein-rich foods consumption was “currently working.” Conclusion : “Living with mother” may be a contributing factor to better staple food consumption among children. However, as food consumption is also affected by various socioeconomic variables, further studies are needed before definitive conclusions can be reached.