Objectives : To evaluate the level of maternal health knowledge among rural women in different types of health facilities and regions with rich and poor clinical resources. Methods : Structured interviews were conducted to evaluate the maternal health knowledge of pregnant women during their first, second, and third antenatal care (ANC) visits in Guairá Region and Caazapá Region, Paraguay. The associations of individual maternal health knowledge score and its gains with their sociodemographic characteristics, type of health facility chosen to receive ANC, and region were examined by repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results : Women who visited hospital for ANC showed a significant predominance of those≥20 years old and with higher educational status (e.g., completed elementary school). On the other hand, women who visited a health post for ANC were higher among multipara. Factors associated with higher maternal health knowledge score were being from Caazapá Region and having visited a hospital for ANC. Conclusions : Health care providers should be socially sensitive, and take into account such factors as age group (and generation), educational status and literacy level, and availability and affordability of resources to provide universal access to maternal health care services.
Objective : Maintaining oral health is important for physical health. Almost all people are prompted to visit a dental office owing to some subjective problem. This study assessed the relationship between subjective oral health and lifestyle. Methods : The subjects were 377 self-supporting elderly people living in Tokyo. They were divided into natural teeth (NT) group (n=145) and partial denture (PD) group (n=232). A questionnaire including items about denture use, lifestyle, and subjective oral health about caries and periodontitis was administered for 3 months from November 2005. Results : The risk of caries was significantly associated with a lack of sleep in the PD group (odds ratio [OR] =2.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.33-4.59, p<0.01). Discussion : Lack of sleep duration increases stress, which also decreases saliva, thus increasing caries risk. In Japan patients generally remove dentures to relax the gums while sleeping. Also dentures collect more plaque and debris than denture free. Therefore it is suggested long awaking hours (lack of sleep duration) is high risk of caries because they wear dentures for long time in PD group. This subjective questionnaire might be useful to confirm subjects' awareness, and facilitated identification of problems, potentially increasing their motivation to seek treatment or improve self-care.