This study aimed to characterize the effects on vegetable consumption caused by mother-child food neophobia and their dietary communication, both of which have a great influence on the child’s eating behavior. A self-administered questionnaire was conducted in elementary and junior high school students who had regular dental visits and their mothers, and 193 subjects were analyzed. Items included in the questionnaire were largely basic attributes and food neophobia of the mother and child, likes and dislikes, triggers of the child’s food aversion, eating habits, mother-child communication about eating habits, frequency of vegetable intake, and preference. Multiple regression analysis determined that food neophobia of the child, experience of forced feeding by the parents, and experience of forced feeding by teachers had a significant positive influence on the likes and dislikes of children, while joint eating behavior with the mother and conversation at table with friends, child age had a significant negative influence. As the factors influencing the number of vegetables the child cannot eat, likes and dislikes of the child, mother’s preference for new food, and the number of vegetables the mother cannot eat had a significant positive influence. In contrast, food neophobia of the child had a significant negative influence. Mother-child food neophobia can affect eating behavior, specifically holding the key to vegetable consumption or non-consumption. The study results suggest that when eating habit guidance is provided emphasis should be placed on joint eating behavior of the mother and child such as food-related conversation, shopping, cooking, and vegetable cultivation, which are considered to be effective in decreasing the likes and dislikes of children, and interventions to enhance dietary communication, for example conversation at table with friends.