高圧力の科学と技術
Online ISSN : 1348-1940
Print ISSN : 0917-639X
13 巻 , 2 号
- Challenges to Possibility of High-Pressure Science and Technology -
選択された号の論文の10件中1~10を表示しています
特集-高圧力の可能性に挑む-
  • 森吉 孝
    原稿種別: 解説
    専門分野: 高圧科学技術
    2003 年 13 巻 2 号 p. 111-118
    発行日: 2003年
    公開日: 2003/09/24
    ジャーナル フリー
    Subcritical and supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2), as an alternative solvent, is one of the unique fluids playing an important role in the development of environmentally favorable technologies. It acts as not only a good solvent to dissolve many low molecular substances, but also a good plasticizing agent for polymeric materials. Plasticization is the underlying principle in various polymer processing technologies with high-pressure CO2, such as low-temperature molding, polymer foaming, impregnation and surface modification. The purpose of this article is to review recent advances in polymer processing using CO2 fluid.
  • 田中 嘉之, 楊 明, 曽谷 知弘, 松尾 成信, 守時 正人
    原稿種別: 解説
    専門分野: 高圧科学技術
    2003 年 13 巻 2 号 p. 119-126
    発行日: 2003年
    公開日: 2003/09/24
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this article, recent advances in the fundamental high pressure research for the phase equilibria of mixtures containing liquid crystals were reviewed. The effect of pressure on the crystal-nematic and nematic-isotropic phase transition temperatures, TCN and TNI, was investigated for MBBA (n-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4-n-butylaniline), EBBA(n-(4-ethoxybenzylidene)-4-n-butylaniline), and binary mixtures containing these components such as (MBBA+EBBA), and (MBBA, EBBA+ benzene, n-hexadecane) at temperatures from 263 to 363 K and pressures up to 200 MPa. The measurements of TCN and TNI were performed using a compact high-pressure optical vessel designed for direct visual observation with the aid of a video microscope, and a three-terminal cylindrical capacitor for dielectric study. The effects of pressure and admixing of a nematic and non-mesogenic second component on the phase transitions are discussed.
  • 谷口 吉弘, 竹田 直弘
    原稿種別: 解説
    専門分野: 高圧科学技術
    2003 年 13 巻 2 号 p. 127-133
    発行日: 2003年
    公開日: 2003/09/24
    ジャーナル フリー
    One of the new focuses of the biological science was genomic science during the 20th century. The new frontier for the 21st century is protein science. Fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic theories, especially volume changes and activation volumes, for the pressure denaturation of proteins are described. The recent studies of molecular structure of proteins utilizing high-pressure spectroscopes (FTIR, NMR, SAXS) and the MD computer simulation are reviewed.
  • 上野 正勝, 水巻 裕輔, 土橋 倫昭, 伊吹 和泰
    原稿種別: 解説
    専門分野: 高圧科学技術
    2003 年 13 巻 2 号 p. 134-140
    発行日: 2003年
    公開日: 2003/09/24
    ジャーナル フリー
    Densities and viscosities of formamide (FA)-, N-methylformamide (NMF)-, andN, N-dimethylformamide (DMF)-water mixtures were measured at 25°C under high pressure up to 200 MPa. The isothermal compressibility of the FA-water system decreases monotonously with an increase in the FA content at each pressure, but those of NMF-and DMF-water systems show a minimum against the composition in the water-rich region. Although the excess viscosity of the FA-water system is negative in the whole composition range, those of NMF-and DMF-water systems are positive. Such trends become remarkable with an increase in pressure. These results are discussed in terms of the hydrogen bonding between water and amide molecules and the hydrophobic hydration.
  • 吉村 幸浩
    原稿種別: 解説
    専門分野: 高圧科学技術
    2003 年 13 巻 2 号 p. 141-148
    発行日: 2003年
    公開日: 2003/09/24
    ジャーナル フリー
    Recent Raman studies on the pressure-induce amorphization of pure ice and ice in aqueous LiCl solution are reviewed. We investigated the change of in situ Raman spectra of ice Ih as functions of pressure and temperature. In this paper, I show the spectral evidence for the formation of strong hydrogen bonds in high-density amorphous ice (HDA) at high pressures and the close similarity in spectral features of relaxed HDA to that of supercooled water at high pressures and low temperatures. It is found that the ice phase in LiCl·12H2O also transforms to an amorphous phase at ∼520 MPa, as in the case of pressure-induced amorphization of pure ice Ih to the HDA. The spectral changes with temperature show the possible existence of a transition from the relaxed amorphous phase to the supercooled liquid at high pressures and low temperatures.
  • 鈴木 良尚, 佐崎 元, 澤田 勉, 宮下 哲, 小松 啓, 田村 勝弘
    原稿種別: 解説
    専門分野: 高圧科学技術
    2003 年 13 巻 2 号 p. 149-156
    発行日: 2003年
    公開日: 2003/09/24
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this article, recent advances in the fundamental research in the protein crystallization under high pressure were reviewed. Pressure is expected to be an important parameter to control protein crystallization, since hydrostatic pressure affects the whole system uniformly and can be changed very rapidly. So far, a lot of studies of protein crystallization under high pressure have been done, some less systematic than others. We have particularly focused on fundamental aspects (the solubility and the crystal growth kinetics) of protein crystallization under high pressure. The studies reviewed contribute significantly to high-pressure crystallography and high-pressure protein science.
  • 澤村 精治
    原稿種別: 解説
    専門分野: 高圧科学技術
    2003 年 13 巻 2 号 p. 157-164
    発行日: 2003年
    公開日: 2003/09/24
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this article, the partial molar volumes of hydrophobic compounds in water were reviewed. The partial molar volume of ethylbenzene in water was drawn as a function of pressure, 0.10-400 MPa, and temperature, 273-323 K. Negative compressibility of the partial molar volume was observed in a low temperature and low pressure region. It suggested that the hydration water was less compressibile than bulk water. Aromatic ring which was included in naphthalene, anthracene, etc. showed different volumetric properties from alkylbenzenes and methylene group. The difference was discussed in a stand point of hydrophobic hydration.
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