High-pressure living radical polymerizations have proven to be an excellent tool for the synthesis of extraordinarily high molecular weight polymers with well-defined structures. The polymerization technique was applied to surface-graft polymerization providing polymer brushes with long chains grafted on silicon wafers and silica particles. Thus prepared spherical polymer brushes formed colloidal crystals with extremely long interparticle distances, and also were utilized to systematically investigate the physiological properties of polymer brush-afforded fine particles.
Recent topics on pressure-induced phase separation and/or phase transition investigated by means of small-angle neutron scattering and dynamic light scattering are reviewed, particularly on (i) pressure-dependence of block copolymer aqueous solutions and protein solutions, (ii) co-nonsolvency of polymers in mixed solvents, and (iii) competition of aggregation vs phase separation in polymer-particle systems. It is emphasized that hydrophobic interaction plays a key role of phase behavior in these system.
In this article, the new high-pressure cell for high-resolution optical microscopy is reported. The cell can be operated at the pressure of 400 MPa and at the temperature of 80°C. Present high-pressure cells for optical microscopy are introduced. Then, the features of the new cell and some images of soft matters under high pressure using the new high-pressure cell are shown.
International Space Station (ISS), which currently flies on orbit of the height of 400 km in every 90 minutes, is a huge international project by 15 nations in the world. In the laboratories on ISS, various space experiments covering physical science, life sciences, space medicines, earth observations and space sciences have been performed. The article introduces overview of the space experiments on ISS and current status on those with high pressure.
Recent advances in chiral photochemistry have been reviewed with particular emphasis on the effects of high static pressure and supercritical carbon dioxide as a fluctuating medium on the enantioselectivity of products obtained in a variety of enantiodifferentiating photosensitizations.
Moderate high-pressure condition less than several tens MPa can be very useful for reproduction of deep underground environments to be utilized for waste disposal of CO2. Recent development in the feasibility test of CO2 sequestration has been achieved by phase-shift interference microscopy, laboratory in-situ measurement of calcite growth rate in the high-temperature and high-pressure cell and ex-situ measurement of calcite reacted in the crystal growth sonde diving into natural geothermal underground. These two approaches enable precise validation of safety storage of CO2 and its life-time.