Japan Journal of Human Resource Management
Online ISSN : 2424-0788
Print ISSN : 1881-3828
Volume 8, Issue 2
Displaying 1-5 of 5 articles from this issue
Articles
  • Takenori MISHIBA
    2006 Volume 8 Issue 2 Pages 2-14
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released on J-STAGE: June 22, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    As for Japanese OSHMS(Occupational Safety and Health Management System), systematic relations with existing Occupational Safety and Health Act-related laws and ordinances were not built enough when it was introduced. Surely, in recent times, movement of law institutionalization over OSHMS comes out slightly. By Occupational Safety and Health Act revision 2005, a step to exempt the enterprise which performed an appropriate measure on the basis of a guideline about OSHMS adequately from a certain legal requirements was taken. However, those legal requirements exempted are quite limited to some Safety-related matters. In addition, in the first place, existing Occupational Safety and Health Act of our country does not provide an indispensable precondition enough so that OSHMS functions effectively. You should compare those with German OHRIS(Occupational Health and Risk Management System) and Occupational Safety and Health Act-related laws and ordinances of the country and can understand this.

    However, Occupational Safety and Health Act of our country suggests close relations with management, and the Labor Standards Law that is a law as the origin of the law establishes a labor and management equality decision principle of working conditions; the idea and the thought of OSHMS were already shown in law, it may be said. In addition, increasing number of judicial precedents about karōshi / overwork suicide have come to refer to personnel affairs / personnel management, ideal method of corporate management, and the necessity of OSHMS has been given a legal proof by those precedents. Furthermore, a recent industrial stress study has developed varied methods of stress investigation and has come to offer an useful tool to OSHMS particularly on health measures side. In this way, may not it be said that OSHMS has come to acquire an original role - an integration of Occupational Safety and Health system into a management system -, at the same time, the possibility that systematic relations of OSHMS and the Occupational Safety and Health Act-related laws and ordinances is brought has come to be seen?

    On the basis of such a premise, systematic relationship between the legal system and OSHMS must be built comprehensively from now on by an effort of all people concerned about Occupational Safety and Health.

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  • Nobuko NISHIWAKI
    2006 Volume 8 Issue 2 Pages 15-25
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released on J-STAGE: June 22, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    This paper analyzes the structure of the work relationships which accountants build while working in their organization. The sample organization and members of this are an audit division in one of the Big Four accounting firms in Japan and accountants whose job titles are Partner or Manager. The data used are the job descriptions in the division describing the daily work schedules of the members over two audit periods. The following is a brief description of the analyses. Focusing on the characteristics of an auditing job done by a big accounting firm to be completed by the same audit team within one audit period, I will examine organizations of each audit team in the division. Next, I will clarify who works with whom and how many audit teams they work with in one period. Based on the result of the above analysis, the structure of work relationships in the division is illustrated.

    There are several findings arising from the analysis. In the division, a few groups of members construct an exclusive network (clique) by working together in several audit teams regularly and building strong relationships with each other. In contrast, most of the other members don't have any cliques. Their working relations with co-workers are mainly weak and temporal so they don't create cliques or only have ones which are too vague to be identified. In order to know what makes these differences even though they work under the same conditions in a same organization, all work relations in the division are re-examined by introducing the idea of network analysis. The result shows that the members who are in the center of the network and have many clients tend to build cliques easily.

    Based on these findings, the significance of building work networks for organization is discussed from the point of productivity and risk reduction. In the surveyed division. more than 200 audit jobs are dealt with every audit period. Members of the division are obligated as professional workers to complete these jobs in a given period and the outputs they deliver must be appropriate for the accounting standards and social needs. If they don't satisfy these requirements, in the worst case, Partners who owe the final responsibility of audit jobs or the accounting firm itself must pay a huge amount of compensation money to stockholders. In order to achieve goals as they reduce risks, promptness in audit team building to start job quickly and effective and efficient performance in every team are necessary. Building and utilizing networks through doing jobs may help accountants to meet these two challenges. Limitations and implications of this research are also discussed.

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