All types of disaster response information are exchanged when a disaster occurs. However, the organizations which carry out disaster response have developed a variety of information systems, and their data structures do not take into account sharing with other organizations. As a result, information sharing is not being done smoothly. In this research, we focused on flood damage as an example of disaster response, and attempted to organize information items by analyzing tasks and information relating to flood damage response. Furthermore, data structures (XML schemata) were designed and proposed with the aim of sharing disaster response information with other organizations using XML. The proposed XML schemata were verified through use in a demonstration experiment conducted in Mitsuke City, Niigata Prefecture -- a region with experience in flood response. In the demonstration experiment, an attempt was made to share information across multiple information systems and networks. The data complied with 13 types of XML schemata, and was shared through the participation of 7 participating organizations, and 11 cooperating organizations, in accordance with a scenario based on the events of the Niigata-Fukushima Torrential Rain Disaster of 2004. Mitsuke City employees were asked, in a questionnaire survey, to evaluate the XML schemata in terms of effectiveness in disaster response work. They determined that information sharing could be done smoothly, and that the system was useful. A questionnaire survey was also administered to supervisors at the participating organizations, who actually handled the XML schemata in their information systems. Although there were some issues in the environment of the demonstration experiment, their assessment was that it was possible to share the necessary information.
In many academic fields, exchange of preprints plays an important role to establish the priority of new research ideas and results. Distribution of preprints by electronic file via the Internet has become a primary method in addition to paper publication. Electronic preprints should be certified in terms of existence proof and tamper resistant, especially in the paperless era. We developed a secure preprint service environment by that uses an electronic signature and timestamp technique.
Since scientific and technological progress is developing rapidly and the sources of knowledge and information are widely distributed, no single organization has all the necessary resources to stay on top of all areas of research and innovation. Global information commons can play a critical role in integrating and utilizing various sources of scientific and technical information. Easy and open access to large and diverse contents of data and information will promote collaboration for innovation linking the seeds of science and technology and economic and social needs. Leading experts from Japan, the United States, and other countries discussed current challenges and future possibilities regard to global information commons in science and technology. With indepth understanding of technical, economic, legal, and institutional conditions in the creation, distribution, management and preservation of data and information in different fields, it will be possible to utilize global information commons for enhancing innovation for global sustainability. The incentive structures of relevant actors and collaboration mechanisms among university, industry, and the public sector are among the aspects identified to be significant. Institutional design is emphasized for legal aspects of intellectual property rights and international standards and ethical issues of the digital divide and protection of privacy.
The System of National Accounts (SNA) is processed statistics, created from various primary statistics. Therefore, quality and quickness of SNA depends on the quality and publication dates of these statistics. Designs and publication dates of primary statistics are incompatible with SNA's specification, because, governmental administration for the statistics is in a very dispersed environment. The author proposes an estimation method for SNA that uses "atomdata" for improving its quality and timeliness.
This report summarized the activities of the Gas Hydrate Task Group in CODATA, and introduced the scheme of the portal site for the international gas-hydrate database. Also, it reported the results of the questionnaire which had been done for the gas hydrate researchers in Japan. The responses for the questionnaire showed the present situations of the gas hydrate researches in Japan and the including problems for the database constructions.