Environmental problem like global warming is a problem with three dimensions of activity subject. Enterprise, Nation and UN as a global organization. In this paper, environmental management is divided to macro and micro. Macro environmental management including national and global environmental management has more difficulty in terms of scientific evidence and governance for making consensus. Then, three types of failure, i.e. the failure of market, the failure of government and the failure of UN are explained. An implication of this paper is that global and national environmental management would be improved with experience and knowledge of micro environmental management.
This paper is concerned with possible future direction of manufacturing systems aiming to achieve the environmental excellence. Three aspects of efficient material use are enumerated to decrease resource extraction from the earth, which are rematerialization of wastes, life extension of materials use, and dematerializaion. Then, it is discussed how the aspects are observed in the improvement of manufacturing systems such as industrial symbiosis, 3R (Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle), and product service system.
Japan has undergone a long period of economic growth based on mass production, mass consumption, and mass disposal. As a result, Japan is facing environmental problem, such as resource constraints and depletion of mineral resources. A lot of companies tend to carry out remanufacturing systems due to these issues. As a result reusing products or parts of it is an important business strategy. In this paper, we review the papers concerning remanufacturing in Closed-Loop Supply Chain and give the definition of "reuse", "refurbishing" and "remanufacturing". Next, we discuss the optimal ordering policy of parts in a Closed-Loop Supply Chain. The manufacturer in the supply chain decides the order quantity of new and reused parts minimizing their total cost. The total cost of manufacturer includes ordering cost of parts, holding cost of products and opportunity loss cost. As a case study, we apply our proposal policy to a product of a certain corporation and confirm the efficiency of the proposal.
In recent years, a large number of firms have actively introduced and implemented green supply chain management (GSCM). GSCM refers to the practice of monitoring and improving environmental performance as well as economic performance in the supply chain network. However, the effects of GSCM on performance and its impact on the inter-firm relationships are not clear in both academically and managerially. In this paper, we exploratory investigate current situations and issues of the corporate networks in GSCM based on our original questionnaire survey. Using empirical results from 126 respondents on GSCM practice in Japanese manufacturing firms, we analyze the motivations for the implementation of GSCM and examine the relationships between GSCM practice and information network among firms. We find that it is a significant relation between the utilization level of information network and the improvement of business process statistically. It implies that information network has a positive moderation effect that plays a role in the effective implementation of GSCM.
Recently, most of companies cope with saving the resource and energy for the sustainability. Customers also pay more attentions to the environment activities of the companies than those in the mass-production/ consumption period. Environment conscious manufacturing is one of the useful approaches to solving these problems in business. This paper deals with two types of environment conscious manufacturing systems. One is an operations management system which gives us the operational procedures to control the system. The other is an Environment Management System (EMS) that is a total management framework. We explain the management systems and discuss how to apply them to the real systems efficiently.
In Japan, the diffusion of ISO 14001 is a remarkable thing compared with overseas countries, and it is oten analyzed from the perspective of institutional theory. In 2011, ISO 50001 went into effect, and the possibility of its diffusion in Japan is discussed from viewpoints of the compatibility and affinity with Law Concerning Rational Use of Energy and ISO 14001. This paper illustrates the trend of various actors concerning the diffusion of the present ISO 50001, and examines the possibility of its diffusion through interviews with relevant actors.
As urban population will increase significantly, formation of low carbon city is necessary to mitigate climate change. Low carbon city is to fulfill not only low emission of carbon dioxide but also resource circulation, harmonization with nature, high quality of life and high societal vitality with assistance of technologies. Supply side and demand side of energy as well as urban form should be redesigned in integrated way for low carbon city. Different strategies should be applied to large cities, medium cities and small cities. Proactive urban planning is necessary to realize the low carbon cities.
As a trade restrictive measure directed towards imports, carbon tariff will influence the international trade and inevitably be subject to relevant provisions of WTO rules. Whether it can be considered as border tax adjustment, carbon tariff seems to violate non-discrimination principles, including the national treatment principle and MFN principle. It is also hard to justify carbon tariff under Article XX exceptions. Therefore, there are significant difficulties in proving that carbon tariff is compatible with WTO rules. This paper presents investigation results of the legislative trends in the U.S. and research trends of European Union on carbon tariff.
According to IEA, China's carbon dioxide emissions accounted for 23% of the world's total emissions, and China surpassed the U.S. as the world's largest emitter in 2009. At the same time, China became the world's second largest economy in 2010. From this perspective, we may say that China should assume greater responsibility for emission reductions. However, the outside world holds an image of China as a heavy emitter but, due to less media attention, no has further information about what China has done to reduce carbon emissions. In fact, China has already made great efforts in emission reduction; for example, between 2005 and 2010, China's energy intensity (energy consumption per 100 000 Yuan GDP) decreased by 19.1%, saving 630 million tons of coal, equal to 1.5 billion tons of carbon dioxide emissions! Such a large emission reduction is definitely a major contribution China has made to the world, and it shows that China is taking the lead in carbon emission reductions. This paper reviews and evaluates the main achievements of energy conservation and pollution control in recent years in China, especially during the period of the Eleventh Five-Year Plan.
Now the big attention is paid to the theme of Low carbon economy. Low carbon economy is necessary for future development. The core of a low carbon economy is to reduce the energy used and lower carbon discharged with the economic growth. Thus, new energy development, clean technique utility, green plan and low carbon life style has undoubtedly become hot issues. In this paper, we mainly focus on the risks of R&D on energy saving technology in Chinese energy enterprises. We firstly concluded 24 risks in previous research in this field. According to the statistic of previous research, the risk factors of energy saving technology can be classified into 6 kinds, namely, market risk, technological research risk, financial risk, resource risk, organization risk and intellectual property risk. Then we established the risk evaluation index system based on the survey of five Chinese energy enterprises in Beijing, armed with factor analysis. This risk evaluation index system includes 6 first grade indexes and 16 second grade indexes. Finally, the risk evaluation model of R&D on energy saving technology is built, and the weight of each kinds of risk is calculated according to the survey of previous studies. This risk evaluation model can be used in investment of the R&D on energy saving technology in energy enterprises.
"Social network analysis" has been used in various research fields with developing the data analysis techniques. But an application for analysis of management organization has not progressed. The main reason is that the analysis theory based on the social network analysis has not yet been well-established in management fields. In order to apply Social network analysis to that fields in this paper, we use Beer's VSM (Viable system model) of organizational Cybernetics as the analytical theory. Based on the theory we visualize information flow and structure within organization using Social network analysis, and propose the practical evaluation approach to apply for organization diagnosis.