The purpose of this study was to make clear the characteristics of superior ski technique by investigating the relationship between subjective evaluation of skiers’movements and objective parameters of 3-dimensional analysis. Seventeen Japanese skiers performed long radius turns and were filmed with two cameras（60Hz），panned and fixed. These runs were scored out of a maximum of 100 points by three referees. To obtain the 3D space coordinates, the Panning DLT method was adopted. Relationships between the score and the parameters obtained using 3D motion analysis were examined by using correlation analysis, and elements of an outstanding ski technique were investigated. There were significant correlations between the scores and the following:（1）radius of curvature at the turn maximum（r=－0.840, p<0.001），（2）the lean angle of the center of mass（CM）at the turn maximum（r=0.628, p<0.01），（3）the angle formed by CM velocity and the fall line at the point where the lean angle of CM was vertical to the slope（the onset of turning）（r=0.816, p<0.001）and（4）the lean angular velocity of CM at the onset of turning（r=0.546, p<0.05）．This study suggests three characteristics of outstanding ski technique: a sharp and wide turn made by gaining centripetal force, a large lean angle of the body, and a rapid edge changing.
The purposes of this study were to analyze the middle turn techniques in carving ski as between expert and intermediate skiers and to develop teaching methods in carving turn for intermediate skiers. Six male collegiate skiers（expert group, n=3, height: 1.68±0.1m, weight: 61.0±5.2kg, age: 21.3±1.2years and intermediate, n=3, height: 1.73±0.0m, weight: 67.0±10.8kg, age: 19.7±0.6years）participated in this study. All subjects tried 4 parallel middle carving turns. Four synchronized CCD video cameras were used to record the 2 turns （gates 2 and 3）. Three-dimensional coordinates landmarks on skiers and ski were calculated by the DLT method. Analyzed parameters were velocity of center of gravity（CG）, angle of attack, edging angle, leaning angle of skier and fore/back-ward movement of skier. For statistical analysis, Cohen’s d was tested to calculate effect size. A faster velocity of CG was obtained from the expert skiers. The angle of attack showed smaller value in expert skiers than that in intermediate skiers. The edging angles of both skis in expert skiers were larger than those of intermediate skiers. The fore/back-ward movement of skier in both groups was located almost posterior to the vertical vector to the ski sole throughout turns. However backward angles were slightly smaller in expert skiers than in intermediate skiers. The leaning angle of skier displayed a similar pattern to the edging angle in both groups. Suggestions for teaching of carving turn were to start learning with carved turn out of fall line with straight gliding, to carved turn out of fall line with traversing, to keep position forward and to lean to turn inside with more leaning their thigh．
This paper proposes a method for estimating the characteristics of carving turns using the measurement information obtained from a skier gliding on the actual snow field. Skiers control skis for making turns. The gliding velocity is changed by the rotational motion of a skier in turns. Therefore, we constructed the turn model which represents the relationship between the gliding velocity and the acting force of a skier in this study. The gliding velocity was estimated using the information from the GPS receiver and the inertial and magnetic field sensors attached to the ski boots. The acting force of the skier was measured by the 6-axis force sensors attached to between the ski boots and bindings. The skier wearing the measurement system made some carving turns in the experiment. We estimated the parameters of the turn model by applying the Kalman filter using the information obtained from the measurement system attached to the skier. The analysis results for the turn model indicated the quantitative relationship between the transverse component of the gliding velocity and the transverse and vertical components of the acting force of the skier. Furthermore, we improved the turn model considering the characteristics of skis. The analysis results for the improved model represented the characteristics of carving turns in more detail than the first turn model. The analysis method can be used for the evaluation of skier's skill and the ski design．
In order to develop a skiing robot which can turn like a skier, it is necessary to understand the basic mechanisms of skiing. This helps in the learning and teaching of skiing. We have developed an active carving-turn model of flexion and extension of the hip and knee joints. Flexing one hip and knee joints and extending the other hip and knee joints causes the skis to be edged. If a carving ski is used, this model can be carving-turned. When this model leans to the side of the flexed leg, one leg is flexed and the other leg is extended. This posture is an inward posture. The direction of the ski is in front of the body and faces the same direction（90 degrees). To achieve a continuous turn, we made this robot model with flexion and extension of the hip and knee joints. Two servo motors were used to create the flexion and extension of each leg. In creating this model, a sequential carving- turn can be achieved.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the first and second Schneider cup ski competitions held in 1932 and 1933 and includes the following;
1. In 1930 Schneider came to Japan and his teaching impressed many people. On January third 1931 the Schneider-slope naming ceremony was held by members of the Nozawa-ski club. As a result the Schneider cup started in 1932.
2. The reason that the members of the Nozawa-ski club opened the combined downhill and slalom race at first was to receive Schneider's approval so that the ski club could make use of the competition for Alpine events.
3. The members of the Nozawa ski club and Goro Sakabe prepared Schneider's memorial race.
4. The members of the Nozawa ski club and a railroad propagated to get people to the competition-grounds in Nozawa.
5. In addition, women's ski racing started from the second Schneider cup games as Nagaoka's memorial competition.
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