This article attempts to characterize "reading (dokusho)" as an action. A large number of studies have focused on one aspect of "reading", such as the reading guidance for students or the reading materials. This research works from a slightly different approach. The focus of this research is what the adult considers "reading" to be. This article regards "reading" as more complex action for the adult. Twenty-nine people were recruited to conduct 5 focus group interviews. The participants were all in their 20s, 30s, and 40s. Focus group sessions allowed for identifying the concept of "reading" for the adult. This paper suggests that reading action was constructed with 5 dimensions. 1) Objects; What they read, 2) Backgrounds and goals; Why and for what they read, 3) Action; How they read, 4) Effects; How they are influenced after reading, 5) Place; Where they read. It must be emphasized that "Objects" could be recognized as more complicated dimensions in this paper. The dimension consisted of following 3 parts; 1) Physical materials, 2) Genres, 3) Values of the contents.
Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) is considered as a useful tool for improving the function of OPAC. Applying FRBR to OPAC is to emphasize collocation of MARC records used in OPAC. Thus it is meaningful to examine the characteristics of MARC format, in order to make clear the possibilities for FRBRization, which makes search capacities of OPAC more effective by extending collocation level. This paper describes, first of all states quo of catalogs and FRBR in general, as well as the concept of a Work in catalogs and FRBR. Then this examines the characteristics of Japan/MARC format in terms of FRBR. The result of the study showed J/M format has only a few element which contribute to Work. This means that J/M is weak in terms of access point comparing to MARC21. Finally, this concludes with the suggestions to improve J/M format by using uniform titles as an access point of title, more rigid authority control of access points, and then.
The purpose of this paper is to consider the relationship between attitude and ability of an owner to the crisis of privately owned archives. The method of this paper is literature analysis of literatures describing the privately owned to obtain the item to a crisis of privately owned archives and the item to attitude of privately owned archives and ability to deal with imposition of an owner. The former is defined as dependent variable and the latter is defined as independent variable. We analyze relationships of independent variables to dependent variables. Five dependent variables concerning the crisis of privately owned archives and 20 independent variables were acuire by literature analysis. Analyzing each relation revealed the relationship between independent variables to dependent variables. For example, dependent variable "state of crisis to which privately owned archives is sold and disposed" is related to independent variable "an owner understands its possession as privately owned archives but it dose not understand the preservation of them." and "an owner understands the preservation of them but it dose not understand to make them available and it dose not have enough ability to keep preserving them and to communicate with the cultural administration."
Elementary and junior high school libraries are now enriching their book stocks under the New Plan for School Library Book Stock Improvement of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, and municipalities are compiling a database of school library book stocks respectively. After the 1997 revision to the School Library Law, teacher librarians were assigned to schools with 12 or more classes, and the number of municipalities that assign school librarians has increased. In addition, coordination is being promoted between school libraries and between school and public libraries. The author conducted a questionnaire survey at the school boards of 56 municipalities in Chiba Prefecture to determine how school boards are assisting school libraries. The questionnaire covered questions regarding the present situation of book purchase cost, compilation of book stock database, assignment of teacher and school librarians, cooperation between school and public libraries, etc. Future directions for the utilization of school libraries were determined based on the results. The results have shown that book stock databases are mostly compiled based on the intentions of the individual persons in charge of libraries; the need for teacher librarians is underestimated, but the rate at which school librarians are assigned is higher than the national average; many public libraries are assisting school libraries, and an increasing number of school libraries are cooperating with each other; and cooperation between school libraries and the community is being promoted beyond administration of individual school libraries.