In Denmark, public library services are providesd for immigrants under the combined efforts of several actors on different levels. This study investigates five actors (three on the municipal level and two on the national level) who are involved with public library services for immigrants in Denmark, and elucidates their functions and the relationships between them. The research data are analyzed from three veiwpoints: financing help, provision of multilingual materials and technical advice, and support for networking. The conclusiong of this study makes the following three points: 1) The Danish Agency for Culture supports most projects on library services for immigrants by funding the budget, and makes it possible for not only libraries, but also for other actors responsible for library activities to work on projects from many angles; 2) Since the Danish Library Centre for Integraion (SBCI) has a clear position as a national center, requests for multilingual materials and technical advice are sent directly to SBCI; 3) Every actor concerned with public library services for immigrants has the function of linking two different actors.
The purpose of this study is to clarify how special librarians have developed in their careers by ascertaining the specifications of jobs that they have engaged in and what conditions are required for their career development in the future. For this purpose, I first extracted the concepts and categories that make up the knowledge and skills required of special librarians by using the Modified Grounded Theory Approach. Then, based on these, I revealed the processes of their career development and factors that affected them, along with the relationship between concepts and categories. As a result I was able to extract two categories, "continuous study and learning" and "outside connections," as conditions required for special librarians' career development from now on. Furthermore, I was able to identidy two directions for the career development of special librarians: "service activities for library users" and "network construction with the people involved internally and externally in their organization," by examining relations between the concepts and categories extracted in this study.
Music materials have the features such as multiple pieces in one medium, multiple statements of responsibility, multi-language, plasticity and fragmentation of work, also unsers have search requests associated with these features. However, even for music library OPAC systems at present, it is not able to respond adequately to these features as shown by previous studies. This article describes basic study on automatic identidication of "works" and "expressions" for music MARC as ony way to solve this problem, aiming at "FRBRization" of music library OPAC systems. Specifically, by reference to the results of an analysis of 300 records related to classical music sampled from a music MARC (Toccata MARC), this article explores to way to generate work and expression identification keys. The study ultimately aims at automatic identification of works and expressions for music MARC by clustering identification keys based on string matching. This article is intended to be the first step of the study.