In this paper, the author analyzed the theories concerning Japanese book cataloging through the period from the beginning of the Taisho era till just before the publication of “Making Catalogue Rules”. In contrast to the Meiji Era when dictionary catalog and classified catalog had been considered being two opposite concepts, librarians such as WADA Mankichi or IMAZAWA Jikai thought of incorporating the classified catalog into dictionary catalog. There also remained theories that compared book catalog with card catalog, but the latter became favored by the end of the era. Sheaf catalog was also introduced by WADA. Besides, were argued usage of kana in cataloging, transcription of names of authors, importance of indexing articles published in journals, or cataloging for the sake of children, and, as a movement leading to the Main Entry Controversy, it is noteworthy that TANAKA Takashi insisted on unifying cataloging method for Japanese and foreign books by the author heading. In this period, the aim of cataloging was basically usercentric reflecting the attitude of the librarians back then.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the standardized image of reading in Japan and to give an overview of its change from 1946 to 2018. This research focuses on three aspects of reading: the purpose of reading, the object of reading, and the target reader. The literature survey consisted of recording the description of each of the three aspects in books on reading method published after 1946. Following this, the study used qualitative coding through the inductive approach to extract a standardized image of reading.
The analysis of this standardized image shows that target readers are classified in accordance with their age, occupation, and personal characteristics. Additionally, the standardized image of reading divides objects of reading mainly into the publishing categories rather than into subject categories like the decimal classification in libraries.
The 73-year period showed several changes in the characteristics of reading. For the aspect of purpose, the idea that reading is related to life and personality remained constant, but the standardized purpose changed from cultivation of self through knowledge to acquisition of practical skills. For the aspect of object, literary works were consistently the object for reading over the survey years. At the same time, books for businesspeople gained popularity while the reading of literary classics decreased. For the aspect of target reader, there was a change from young adults to working people as well as an extension of targeting towards children.