The microenvironment influences the behavior of follicular lymphoma (FL) but the specific roles of the immunomodulatory BTLA and TNFRSF14 (HVEM) are unknown. Therefore, we examined their immunohistochemical expression in the intrafollicular, interfollicular and total histological compartments in 106 FL cases (57M/49F; median age 57-years), and in nine relapsed-FL with transformation to DLBCL (tFL). BTLA expression pattern was of follicular T-helper cells (TFH) in the intrafollicular and of T-cells in the interfollicular compartments. The mantle zones were BTLA+ in 35.6% of the cases with similar distribution of IgD. TNFRSF14 expression pattern was of neoplastic B lymphocytes (centroblasts) and “tingible body macrophages”. At diagnosis, the averages of total BTLA and TNFRSF14-positive cells were 19.2%±12.4STD (range, 0.6%-58.2%) and 46.7 cells/HPF (1-286.5), respectively. No differences were seen between low-grade vs. high-grade FL but tFL was characterized by low BTLA and high TNFRSF14 expression. High BTLA correlated with good overall survival (OS) (total-BTLA, Hazard Risk=0.479, P=0.022) and with high PD-1 and FOXP3+Tregs. High TNFRSF14 correlated with poor OS and progression-free survival (PFS) (total-TNFRSF14, HR=3.9 and 3.2, respectively, P<0.0001), with unfavorable clinical variables and higher risk of transformation (OR=5.3). Multivariate analysis including BTLA, TNFRSF14 and FLIPI showed that TNFRSF14 and FLIPI maintained prognostic value for OS and TNFRSF14 for PFS. In the GSE16131 FL series, high TNFRSF14 gene expression correlated with worse prognosis and GSEA showed that NFkB pathway was associated with the “High-TNFRSF14/dead-phenotype”.
In conclusion, the BTLA-TNFRSF14 immune modulation pathway seems to play a role in the pathobiology and prognosis of FL.
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is classified as an aggressive lymphoma due to its poor prognosis regardless of the treatment. Almost all cases of DLBCL are treated using rituximab-combination chemotherapy, but spontaneous regression without any therapeutic modalities may rarely occur. A 35-year-old man complained of abdominal pain and discomfort. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) demonstrated abnormal accumulation of fluorodeoxyglucose in the thickened wall of the small intestine and multiple lymphadenopathy. Laparoscopic lymph node biopsy was performed, and the diagnosis of DLBCL was made based on the biopsy findings. Soon after the laparoscopic biopsy, the patient felt free from any symptoms. Approximately three months later, no abnormal accumulation of fluorodeoxyglucose in the entire body was found on PET-CT. He has remained in complete metabolic remission for over three years according to PET-CT. We discuss the mechanism of this rare phenomenon.
Hypercalcemia due to malignant tumors including malignant lymphomas is relatively common. Among cancer patients with hypercalcemia, humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy is the most common and accounts for about 80% of all cases with hypercalcemia. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3(1,25(OH)2D3)-mediated hypercalcemia is relatively rare. Although malignant lymphoma has been also reported to cause 1,25(OH)2D3-mediated hypercalcemia, it is not known whether there is any association between 1,25(OH)2D3-mediated hypercalcemia and any specific histological type of malignant lymphoma. We herein report a case of an anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) -negative with 1,25(OH)2D3-mediated hypercalcemia, which has never been previously reported. An 80-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our department due to acute exacerbation of hypercalcemia. He was diagnosed with ALCL, ALK-negative. Serum 1,25(OH)2D3 level was high and seemed to be associated with the lymphoma because the serum calcium and 1,25(OH)2D3 levels improved in response to chemotherapy. Histological findings showed that many CD68 positive macrophages were observed in the microenvironment of tumor cells. Lymphoma cells or tumor microenvironmental cells may produce 1,25(OH)2D3 because several previous reports showed the source of 1,25(OH)2D3 can be either lymphoma or tumor microenvironmental cells. Moreover, because 1,25(OH)2D3-mediated hypercalcemia has been reported regardless of the specific histological type of lymphoma, tumor microenvironmental cells may be involved in this condition. However, we could not identify the source of 1,25(OH)2D3 in this case. The association between 1,25(OH)2D3 production and prognosis in malignant lymphomas is yet unknown; further studies are needed to elucidate the clinical characteristics of malignant lymphoma with 1,25(OH)2D3-mediated hypercalcemia.
Myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm (MDS/MPN) with ring sideroblasts and thrombocytosis (MDS/MPN with RS-T), which exhibits both an increased number of marrow ring sideroblasts and thrombocytosis, is a rare disorder classified as one of the newly established forms of MDS/MPN in the WHO 2016 classification. A 77-year-old female with marked thrombocytosis of 1,024×109/L was tentatively diagnosed with essential thrombocythemia in 2011, and the thrombocytosis was controlled using hydroxycarbamide and low-dose busulfan. In 2016, the leukocyte count increased to a peak value of 68.8×109/L (86.6% mature neutrophils) during platelet-reduction therapy. Bone marrow aspirate exhibited hypercellularity with ring sideroblasts comprising 41.5% erythroblasts without excess myeloblasts. Cytogenetic examination demonstrated the JAK2 V617F mutation and chromosomal abnormality of 46,XX,del(20)(q1?). Furthermore, dysplastic features of erythroid and granuloid precursors, as well as many large atypical megakaryocytes, were observed. Further genetic examinations revealed the SF3B1 K700E mutation, but not amplification of the JAK2 gene or pathogenic mutations in the 13 other genes examined. A diagnosis of MDS/MPN with RS-T was established and hyperleukocytosis was controlled using a higher dose of hydroxycarbamide. Although the patient maintained a stable disease state, she became RBC transfusion-dependent. Hyperleukocytosis, regardless of chemotherapy, is rare and may be novel in this disorder.
Composite lymphoma (CL) is defined as the occurrence of two distinct types of lymphoma within the same patient. Most cases of CL involve Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas or two distinct types of B-cell lymphomas; true CL is a composite B-cell and T-cell lymphoma, and is rare. We herein report a case involving concurrent extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, which has not been previously reported. As the mechanisms and treatments of composite B-cell and T-cell lymphomas are unclear, further studies are required to improve the prognosis.