Investigating the amine formation from amino-acids by the strain of Esch. Coli communior isolated by Hirata, the authors intended to elucidate the chemical properties of the histamine-like substance contained in the ileac intestine experimentally induced in rabbits. The amino-acids employed in the present experiments are histidine and arginine to investigate the formations of histamine and putrescine respectively. The following is the conclusion thus obtained. The strains of Esch. Coli communior isolated from the ileac intestine experimentally induced in rabbits were found to form histamine and putrescine from histidine and arginine respectively.
In an attempt to discover the upper limit of the steady state in the relatively localized muscular work mainly performed by the upper extremities, the author observed the fluctuation by time lapse in the gas metabolism and pulse rate under the work of various intensities employing a hand-pump type ergometer. The followings are the brief outline of the results thus obtained. 1) The upper limit of the steady state of the relatively localized muscular work, which most commonly seen and which is mainly performed with the upper extremities, lies within 3.0 and 3.5 in terms of the relative metabolic rate (R.M.R) . 2) In case there are no major variations in the thermal condition, the limit for the establishment of the steady state calculated from the increment in the pulse rate and that from the gas metabolism coincided almost exactly each other. Consequently, increment of pulse rate is considered to be sufficiently valid as the index to decide the upper limit of the steady state.
Up until to-day, it is generally believed that the metabolism of the corpulent person is essentially not different from that of the slender person. In order to elucidate as to whether a similar result is observed or not even when the variation in the metabolism due to the adaptation is taken into consideration, the author determined the gas metabolism and the various somatic functions at rest, and obtained the following results. (1) The basal metabolism and the metabolism at rest per body weight of the corpulent person demonstrated very much lower value compared with that of the slender person. However, no significant difference was noted in the value per body surface area. (2) Among the corpulent persons, especially those who recently became corpulent with relatively poor working ability, showed a low value, and those who recently became slender demonstrated a high value. Moreover, the values of the basal metabolism of the corpulent and slender persons who remained unchanged during these several years showed a reversed aspect in the difference compared with that stated in the above (1) . The high value in the metabolic rate demonstrated by the former is due to the higher cardiac function, espcially to the higher pulse pressure adapted to the prolonged continuous living conditions, and the lower value observed in the latter is considered to be due to the diminution of the cardiac function. (3) No qualitative differences were noted in the respiration quotient of the rest metabolism and its daily fluctuation between the groups of corpulent and slender persons examined.
The author investigated the difference in the metabolic function of the corpulent and slender persons under the exercise of stepping up and down, under which the largest difference would be demonstrated by both of the persons when they are under an equal exercise. The followings are the brief outline of the results thus obtained. (1) No difference was noted in the oxygen requirement per unit body weight, consequently in the working efficiency, when corpulent and slender persons were under an equal exercise of stepping up and down. However, the oxygen requirement per unit body surface area and the relative metabolic rate (R. M. R.) of the former was found clearly higher compared with that of the latter. (2) The relative metabolic rate under the exercise of steff ing up and down possesses no universal validity because the body weight of each individual acts as the burdening weight. Nevertheless, it is considered to be an adequate index of the work intensity indicating the work stress of each individual. (3) when the corpulent and slender persons are under an equal exercise of stepping up and down, the former demonstrated clearly a larger oxygen debt and an extremely delayed process of recovery compared with those of the latter. (4) Almost no difference was noted in the respiration quotient of the rest and work metabolism between the corpulent and slender persons.
Since 1948, the author has been conducting pathologic anatomic histologic examinations on 29 bodies died of Japanese B encephalitis, and pursued the correlationships among various changes and their genesis of the tissue in the brain. Specifically, the present paper was attempted to observe cerebral changes with special reference to the edematous demyelination, which is very commonly found in the anatomical and histological findings in the bodies died of Japanese B encephalitis. In every case, as histological finding, injuries caused by the virus to the individual or the defensive repairing mechanisms are demonstrated in combination of various ratio. In most cases, the process to become coarse revealed its close and direct relations to the blood vessel in its establishment, but not so remarkable in certain cases. In the latter cases, it was diffuse, and the basic elements demonstrate a coarse meshed development, or show a congregation of several vacuoles like a honey comb. Occasionally, these are found fused together forming a slithtly large cavity. In both of the cases, it acted destructive to the nervous sheath when they are fused together and enlarged and forms demyelination. Previously, Umeda reported the findings in which the virulence of the virus is expressed by the coarseness as the principal pathological change as seen in the brain of a mouse possessing strong sensitive factor to the Japanese B encephatlitis virus. The findinge in 9 cases dealt with in the present paper are considered related to the findings in the mouse brain stated in the adove. In other words, when the injuries by the virus are recognized, although the reaction formula in the defensive or repairing meachanisms is varying by auch conditions as the virulence of the virus in each epidemic, the individual discrepancy of the animal and the strain factors possessed by the animals, the injuries given to the living subject by the virus are considered to be expressed by the coarseness as the basic common factor. In addition, although the edematous coarseness is a finding due to the circulatory disturbance caused by an inflammation, its nature is considered to be serous inflammation. Therefore, the demyelination is considered to be due to the secondary demyelination without accompanyment of the elementary injnries in the blood vessel.
The nerve fibers of Cambarus clarkii are all non medulated. The nerve in the claws consists of the sensoay, motor and inhibitory fibers. Among them, the motor fibers are the thickest and classified in “giant fiber”. The action potentials led from the nerve trunk are very complicated, for the trunk contains various kind of nerve fibers. The action potential evoked in the sensory fiber is weak, and that evoked in the motor fiber is strong. A single nerve fiber can be easily prepared by Tazaki's technique. The spike potential led monophasically from the single motor fiber shows a simple scalene-triangular shape. The ascending time of it is 0.1-0.2 msec. and the descending time is 2.5 msec at 100°C. The spike potential is followed by the negtaive and positive after potentials. The former lasts 8.6 msec. and the later more than 42 msec. The response of motor fiber complies with the “all or nothing principle ”. If the direct current of long duration is made through the nerve, there occur repetitive responses in it. The frequency of the nerve discharges increases according to the increase of the current strength. The motor fibers are divided into two sorts, i. e. fast and slow fibers. A single impuls propagated in the fast fiber can evoke the contraction of the muscle which is supplied by that nerve fiber. But a single impulse conveyed by the slow fiber can not evoke the muscle contraction. For to evoke the muscle contraction, it needs two or more impulses in the latter case. Strength-duration time relations are pursued in the fast, slow and inhibitory fibers. Weiss' formula is valid for these results. The value of chronaxie of the fast fiber is about 0.65 msec., and that of slow and inhibitory fibers are 1.3 msec. and 3.35 msec. respectively.
In parallel with the studies by Kobayashi of the authors' Department on the relationships between aromatic compounds and the adrenal gland (unpublished), the authors attempted to investigate the influence of histamine on the adrenalin in the adrenal grand. On this occasion, the authors also investigated the general development of chick embryo, the fluctuation in the amount of inorganic matters and the excretion of histamine in the .allantoic fluid in addition to the investigation of the amount of adrenalin in the abrenal gland. The results thus obtained are stated hereunder. 1) The chick embryo from the eggs added with histamine generally demonstrated a tendency of decrease in body weight. Particularly in the case when the eggs were treated with histamine of a high concentration, the general development of the chick embryo was evidently poor. 2) Among the cases treated with 15.0 mg of histamine, 1 case of pronounced edema was recognized. 3) No remarkable fluctuation in the amount of allantoic fluid of the chick embryo treated with histamine was noted. 4) The amount of adrenalin in the adrenal gland of the chick embryo treated with histamine was found increased. 5) The amount of Ca or Mg contained in the allantoic fluid of the chick embryo treated with histamine did not demonstrate any remarkable fluctuation. 6) The excretion of histamine in the allantoic fluid in the cases treated with histamine evidently demonstrated a tendency of increase when compared with the control cases treated with water.