In the present work, stimuli were given to the rootlet of the dorsal root of the L7 spinal cord of cat, and the reflex discharge was induced from other rootlet and recorded. The dorsal root reflex occurs normally. In the dorsal root reflex, no monosynaptic arc is recognized. They are all polysynaptic arcs. The reflex time was shortened as the stimulus became stronger, but it reached the maximum without further shortening when the strength of stimulus reached a certain strength. The minimum reflex time in the present experiment was approximately 7.4 msec. The reflex discharge was also enhanced as the strength of stimulus became stronger, and it reached the maximum at certain strength. This maximum did not go up any further even with stronger stimulus. The dorsal root reflex was examined with the stimulation of the Nervus tibialis, but the occurrence of the dorsal root reflex was found weak. No correlation between the strength of the afferent impulse and the strength of the dorsal root reflex was recognized. However, the presence of a small number of afferent fibres participating the dorsal root reflex in Nervus tibialis could not be denied. Two consecutive stimuli were given to a same rootlet of L7 dorsal root and the reflex discharge was induced from other rootlet. In this case, it was learnt that the excitability of the reflex arc of the dorsal root reflex was lowered due to the first stimulus over a period of 600 msec. In view of the above facts, the authors confirmed the presence of the dorsal root reflex, and concluded that the dorsal root reflex essentially does not differ from the ordinary so-called ventral root reflex.
1. A case of primary preural sarcoma and 4 cases of primary pulmonary carcinoma summarily reported. 2. Histological pictures morphologically corresponding to atypical adenocarcinoma were recognized in 2 cses of the so-called ademocarcinoma and 1 cases whice was interpreted as oatcell carcinoma. 3. The behaviors of metastaiic pulmonary carcinoma and the primary pulmonary carcinoma toward the surrounding pulmonary alvoli were observed. The metastatic carcinoma developed compressimely, but the primary carcinoma infiltratevely. 4. Pulmonary tuberculosis as the developing matrix or the inducing factor for pulmonary carcinoma was investigated, but no evidence of any clear relationship between them was obtained.
In the present work, a few observations were made on the fixation of the tissues, particularly on the time between the collection and fixation of the tissues and its procedures, and the preparation of extra-thin sections with ultramicrotome, which are most essential for obtaining superior histological pictures in the electron microscopy. In the cases of the tissues obtained in the animal experiments, several drops of OsO4 solution were dripped on the tissue when the material was collected and the tissue shall be cut into oblong slices; slices shall be placed in OsO4 solution and cut into fine blocks of approximately 1 mm3 20-30 minutes later. The fine blocks of approximately 1 mm3 shall be obtained by 2-3 cuts with razor blade. On some occasions, autolytic changes are observed in the picture of the material prepared from the centre of the fine blocks fixed for 1-2 minutes. This is considered due to the time required for the OsO4 solution to penetrate the tissue. When mechanical force was added to this, the picture thus obtained might be misinterpreted. In the case of human tissue, surgical specimen is preferable, but, if too long time was spent for the operation, fine structures of the cells was lost, and conglomeration and sissolution of the granules contained in the nucleus were observed. These phenomena were particularly eminent in the cases of tumor cells. In the cases of autopsy material, unless the material was collected within 1 hour at the latest from the death, the significance of electron microscopy will be lost.
It was elucidated that sodium monofluoroacetate (SFA) condensed with oxaloacetate and converted to fluorocitrate which ‘jams’ the tricarboxylic acid cycle by inhibiting the aconitase. Citrate also accumulates in tissues of animals poisoned with SFA. However, the livers of normal female rats accumulated the large quantities of citric acid in contrast to the inability of normal male rats to accumulate citrate in the liver. Further, following castration female rats did not decrease citrate synthesis in the liver but castrated and adrenalectomized male rats acquired the ability to accumulate citric acid in the liver after SFA treatment. By the above facts, an inhibition of citrate synthesis by sex hormones might be responsible for this sex difference. The present investigation was undertaken to obtain further information on the influence of various hormones on citrate synthesis by liver and kidneys. 1. No sex difference was observed in the accumulation of citrate in the normal liver and kidneys of rats. 2. Following SFA treatment, the livers of normal female rats accumulate the large quantities of citric acid in contrast to the inability of normal male rats to accumulate citrate in the liver. 3. Castration of female rats decrease the ability of the liver to accumulate citrate following SFA treatment wheras male rats acquired the ability to accumulate citrate in the liver following castration. 4. Administration of testoterone to normal male and female rats for several days decreased citrate synthesis in the liver. However, the administration of estradiole induced the increase in amount of liver citrate not only in the male, but even further increase in the female. This facts suggests that estrogen acts promotingly to the liver citrate synthesis. 5. After administration of excess amount of progesterone to castrated female rat, inhibition of liver citrate synthesis was observed. 6. Following administration of the solution of desiccated thyroid gland powder to normal male rat, accumulation of liver citrate was observed. However, with castrated female rat, only in 1 out of 5 cases, an eminent accumulation was observed. After castrated male rat was treated with thiouracil and supression of androgen and thyroxine might be obtained, the accumulation of liver citrate was as low as in the case of nomal male rat treated SFA. 7. Following administration of cortisone acetate to castrated male rats, accumulation of citrate was observed in 3 out of 5. However, in castrated female rat livers, cortison acetate inhibits citric acid synthesis.
In the present work, radiobiological studies on adrenoehromemonosemicarbazone placing special emphasis on its protective effects were conducted. The following results were thus obtained. 1. The local application of AC-17 failed to prevent skin damage of rabbit caused by the daily irrakiation of 300 r. With the intramuscular injections of 0.1 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg, 9, 200 r and 10, 000 r respectively were permissible against the chntrol value of 8, 000 r when judged by the skin erosion. 2. In the control cases, complete recovery from the skin erosion was not noted even after 1 year, but with the intramuscular injections only 2 months were required for complete recovery. 3. In the group received 1 mg/kg intramuscular injections, it was histologically noted that the damage, especially the damage in the blood vessels, was found slight even when irradiated 9, 000 r for 30 days. 4. The effect of AC-17 against the fatal damage in the mice caused by total irradiation with 700 r (L. D. 100) was observed. The most favorable rate of survival; (41%) was obtained with one administration of 2 mg/kg before irradiation. Similar application of 10 mg/kg demonstrated almost no effect. When administered after irradiation, 25% was the highest rate of survival with 2 rng/kg in one dose. The rate was 5.5% with 4 mg/kg and 0% with 10 mg/kg showing no effect with larger doses. 5. The rate of survival was 30% when administered for 10 consecutive days before irradiation, with the consecutive administrations after irradiation, the rate was only 16% at the dose of 0.2 mg/kg, but all animals died at any other doses. 6. Especially when 2 mg/kg was administered before irradiation, diarrhen was found mild and the decrease in the body weight was only 1.3 g on 8th day. In the rats administered similarly with 2 mg/kg, the decrease in the weight of spleen was milder compared with the control. The adrenal gland was found even hypertrophic compared with the control. 7. A total of 18, 000 r was irradiated to rabbit and the hematological changes were traced for 9 months. The results demonstrated that there seemed no difference in the decrease in WBC, RBC and Hb value between those received daily administration of 1 mg/kg of AC-17 until the completion of the irradiation and the control. 8. The combined effect of AC-17 and X-ray (700 r locally applied) on the Ehrlich's subcutaneous tumor wat investigated. Either in the local administration or in the general application of AC-17. at least, its sensitiveness to radiation was not diminiched. 9. In view of the above, the protective effect of AC-17 against radiation damage was considered to be due to its effects on blood vessels as well as greatly to its stimulating action on adrenal gland.
As a part of the pharmacological studies on the embryonal stage, and in order to learn the influence of nicotine on the excretion of iodine, the author injected KI and nicotine separately and then in combination to the developing hens' eggs, and investigated the development of the chick embryos and the excretion of iodine in their allantoic fluids. Simultaneously, he conducted histopathological examinations of their livers. The following results were thus obtained. 1. Chick embryo injected with KI alone: The single injection of 0.1 mg of nicotine did not cause any remarkable difference in the development from that of the controls. However, the development was found inhibited by the injections of more than 1.0 mg of nicotine. In the case of higher concentration of nicotine given, the incidence of hydropsis, malformation and death rate were found worse. KI did not seem to exercise any influence on the toxicity of nicotine against the development of chick embryo. 2. The injection of KI alone generally demonstrated a tendency to increase the amount of allantoic fluid compared with the control. However, the injections of nicotine alone or KI-nicotine combination caused the decrease in the amount of allantoic fluid. Thus, KI failed to inhibit the action of nicotine to decrease the amount of allantoic fluid. 3. The excretion of iodine into the allantoic fluid of the cases treated with KI was easily inhibited by the combination with nicotine. The degree of the inhibition became stronger as the concentration of the combined nicotine was raised. The phenomenon was found particularly strong when 3.0 mg of nicotine combined with KI was applied. 4. By the histological investigations, slight regressive degeneration in the hepatic cells was noted in the cases treated with KI alone. However, strong regressive degeneration was observed in the cases treated with nicotine alone and those treated with KI-nicotine combination. The degeneration was found stronger as the concentration of nicotine became higher.
In order to seek a chemical protection against the skin damge, which is one of the limiting factors to the radiation therapy of malignant tumor, cycteamine, pantothenic acid etc. were tried out with rabbits and human cases of breast cancer under postoperative therapy. The following results were thus obtained. When observed from the skin erosion, the pae- or post-irradiation administration of pantothenic acid failed to allow to increase the radiation dose. Combined application with cysteamine did not increase the effectiveness of panthenic acid. However, the administration of 0.1%—1% solution of panthenic acid was found effective to cure tee skin erosion within 1 month from the termination of irradiation (8, 000-9, 000r), while the control irradiation (8, 000r) caused skin erosion uncurable for along period of time. In the clinical cases, pre-irradiation administration of 10-3 M cysteamine (combined with pantothenic acid) allowed 1.5 times as large irradiotion dose as the control (5.000r), but the administration of 10-4 M was found inefiectve. Its principal action was considered to be compatition. The application of 2% pantothenic acid carbowax ointment for the treatment of the erosion ameliorated the complaint of the patient, and was found effective to cure it within a period of 11 days when applied 3 times daily or more.
When rabbits under different conditions were inoculated with Japanese B encephalitis virus, biologically and histologically different findings were observed indicating that certain difference had been cuased by the above conditions. The author selected rabbit serum and lecitin, which is one of the components of the living tissues, particularly of the brain, not possessing any immune body or toxicity. The virus was treated with each of the two substances and inoculated into mouse brains, and they were biologically and histologically observed. The following results were thus obtained. When Japanese B encephalitis virus treated with rabbit serum was inoculated intracerebrally into mice, no remarkable delay in the manifestation was noted. When the virus was treated with 1%—20 %lecitin, the virus treated with 10% lecitin demonstrated the most delayed manifestation, and that treated with 1% lecitin demonstrated the mildest delay. The circulation arrest, degeneration of nerve cells, and proliferation and infiltration of round cells in the brain were mils in the cases in which the manifestation was delayed, and were stronger in the cases in which the manifestation was accelerated. The above facts led the author to believe that the virus had been affected biologically by lecitin thereby milder histological damages of the brain was caused as a morphological indication of the variation of the virus.
Discussions were made on the olfacdtory sense appeared in the dreams. The author also clinically classified the olfactory sense from the view point of illusion and hallucination as follows. Hypersensitive intensification of olfactory sense Diminution of olfactory sense Loss of olfactory sense Fallacious olfactory sense Olfactory illusion Objective maldorous olfactory sense Residual olfactory sense