1. Methylcholanthrene dissolved in carbowax was delivered between the eyelids of mice 3 times a week. Clinically, the first visible effects of the carcinogen applied in this manner were depilation and hypertrophy. After that papillomas developed and thereafter turned into cancer. 2. These neoplastic changes were frequently induced in the outer portion of the upper eyelid and inner portion of the lower eyelid than other portions. 3. Cancer was identified the squamous carcinoma and metastases were found in lymphs of the neck and lung. 4. The induction of eyelid tumor was accelerated when animals were fed V. A. rich diet. 5. On the contrary the induction of a tumor was delayed when the animals were irradiated with ultra-violet light.
Das Hypernephrom ist relativ selten im Schrif tum, und seine Metastase auf Knochen ist auch seltener in Japan. In unserem Fall kam es diejenige Kachexie durch malignen Geschwulst im Laufe der Heilung der Lungentuberkulose vor, die von terminaler Pneumonie begleitet war. Kulkow hat Bericht über Hypernephrom-metastase auf der Dura-mater-Innenfläche des unteren Brustrückenmarks mit Druck auf die Markmasse und auf-und-abgesteigender Entartung erstattet. In unserem Fall ist es konstatiert, lass die linken Hälfte des 9-11 Brustwirbels (10te Sternocostalgelenk eingeschlossen) lurch die Tumormetastase zergestört wurde, welche eine tumorose Verwachsung mit der Dura mater einerseits und die Druckmyelitis anderseits verursacht. Kurz genommen kommt es darauf, lass dieser Fall lurch hochgradige Abnutzung, Kachexie durch Hypernephrom und Lungentuberkulose, Metastase desselben auf Brustwirbel, Kompressionsmyelitis mit kleinem Erweichungsher dund die als Todesursache berechneten Pneumonie characterisiert ist.
The both-sides “Pocketear” of the 8 years old boy and the 10 months female were cured by means of the forming operation. And 7 cases 5 boys and 2 girls (0.19%) of the“Pocketear” were found in all 3600 persons of the first and middle schoolboys and girls and all of them had no connection with heredity and the condition of childbed or delivery.
Nitrate is found in normal human urine, but not nitrite. Nitrate is reduced to nitrite by Escherichia coli, Micrococcus pyogenes and Proteus vulgaris, therefore the urine of patients infected with such bacteria turns to positive for nitrite. The procedure of nitrite test employed is very simple. The reagent prepared by mixing sulfanilic acid solution with α-naphthylamine solution is added to fresh urine. If the color of urine changed to red, nitrite is positive. The authors have applied this test in outpatient treatment as an auxiliary diagnostic method with a great convenience. The results obtained are presented in the paper decoribed above. The urinary tract tuberculosis is suspected in the chronic cystitis patients with negative nitrite reaction, because urine reaction of patients infected with streptococci, gonococci or tubercle bacilli is negative. This reaction is not influenced by urinary protein and pH of urine as well as drugs administered.
The phagocytic action of neutrophilic leucocytes and hematologic changes were studied in Wistar albino rats. Experimental animals were divided into six groups ; such as 1. control, 2. adrenalectomized bilaterally, 3, adrenalectomized and received cortisone 25 mg/kg daily, 4. adrenalectomized and received DOCA 5 mg/kg daily, 5. received cortisone 25 mg/kg daily and 6. received 5 mg/kg DODA daily the following results were obtained. 1. In adrenalectomized rats, the phagocytic action was increased slightly, but it reduced by the administration of cortisone, while by the administration of DOCA showed no effect on it. 2. In the control rat the phagocytic action was reduced slightly by the administration of cortisone, while it increased by DOCA. 3. The number of leucocytes in adrenalectomized rats decreased by the administration of cortisone, while it did not influenced by any other agents used in this experiment. 4. The remarkable lymphopenia was observed in adrenalectomized rats by administration of cortisone, while lymphopenia in control rats was mild by curtisone treatment. 5. A marked eosinophilia observed in abrenalectomized rats was inhibited by DOCA, and elevated by cotisone treatment. It is suggested by the above observation that the phagocytosis in rats is decreased by cortisone and increased by DOCA treatments.
The phagocytic action of neutrophilic leucocytes and hematologic changes were studied in Wistar male rats following the feeding of diets containing protein, fat and carbohydrate. The following results were obtained. 1. The dietary components have no effect on the degree of the phagocytic action. 2. No remarkable effect observed in phagocytosis in fat feeding rats, however, a slight a increase phagocytic actionwas observed following 6 days' feeding of protein or carbohydrate. 3. Slight neutrophilia observed by the feeding of protein or carbohydrate for two days and it recovered to the control level after 10 days. 4. The increase of phagocytosis appeared following appearance of neutrophilia. From the investigations described above, it is suggested that protein or carbohyarate feeding will induce an alarm reaction but not in case of fat. Therefore, it is. demonstrated that the dietary components have an influence on leucocytic phagocytosis through pituitary adrenal axis.
From the significance of antigenic structure and from the important role in infection, many efforts have been done to elucidate the chemical structure of O antigen of gram negative enteric bacteria. After 18 hours' incubation, bacteria were spun down by centrifugation. Zine chloride was added to the supernatant making white precipitate which as followed by washing with distilled water and by elution with disodium-phosphate solution. The crude extract was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation and zone electrophoresis. Endotoxin thus obtained showed antigenic pyrogenic and lethal effects an experimental animals and precipitated by O antiserum. The chemical component of this toxin is lipidpolysaccharide-protein comple. In this paper the chemical comgonet of polysaccharide was presented. Many papers have been presented about the O antigen of E. coli : NCV 1, 055 NCL, 086, 018, 08, 026, 0111. These results aresummarized in Table 5. 1) The antigenic substance of E. coli O 23 was purified and fhe chemical component of polysaccharide was studied. The chemical components of polysaccharide were glucose, galactose, manose, xylose and glucosamine. 2) The sugar which had large Rf value in paper chromatography, was obtatined. This sugar could not be comparing with abequose and tyvelose, because these sugar were not available as the standared in this moment.
1) Reagents for C. C. F. reaction were studied comparatively. 2) The grade of flocculation reaction was controled by the amount of cholesterol added incompletely. The unknown factors which effect the grade of flocculation reaction were expected. 3) Twenty-three cases were positive in C. C. F. test out of 28 patients suffereing liver diseases. There were no changes in value of each protein fraction of the serum in C. C. F.. positive cases. The C. C. F. test of the professional blood loners was showed negative, but the albumin fraction of the serum showed lower level than the control.
Radiation injury was decreased when essential aminoacids were added in the culture media in yeast experiments. But we must be careful for the role of essential amino-acids in yeast cells. Daily intra peritoneal injection of essential amino acids in mice after whole body irradiation made them survive longer.
Mice were inoculated with the M-type Var. (Mutabile type Variant) of Murase of Salm. typhi-murium and obserbed whether they die of infection by M-type Var. itself or by organisms (Variants) derived from it. Relatively young mice and adult mice were used for the experiment. Two kinds of M- type Var., one of which was thought to be easily reversible to the original (“RT” of Fukutome et al) than the other, were used for the inoculation. Experimental results were as follow : The so-called “M”→“RT” mutation rate of the test strains by simple fermentation method in galactose broth were the same as before. Some of the mice died of sepsis by intraperitoneal inoculation of 10-1 mg of “MA” organisms, but none of them died when 10-2 mg was administered. “MB” strain was found more virulent than “MA” strain. But When 10-1 mg of “MA” strain contained 10-8 mg of the original strain the virulence was almost the same as that of “MB” strain. Some of mice especially the young ones died of acute sepsis by M-type Var. at the early stage of infection, although secondary sepsis by “RT” were most prevalent in the later stage. Exceptionally, sepsis by “GM” (Galactose M-tyye Var. of Ono) or“MT” (daughter type of M-type Var. of Murase) was also the cause of the death. In most cases, M-type Var. and in few cases, “MT” or “RT” were found when the mice were sacrificed and cultued at the termination of the experiment. It was assumed that the inoculated M-type Variant might contained some of“RT”or other in it as shown by the control experiment and at the same time “M”→“GM”, “M”→“MT” or “M”→“RT” Variation in animal body could not be neglected.
Colonies fished from the pure culture of M-type variant, (Mutabile-type variant Murase) of Salmonella typhi-murium were subcultured in each of agar, broth, and peptone water media for 5-10 times repeatedly. The cultures of M-type variant were suspended with saline in a concentration of 1 mg/ml and 0.1 ml of which was inoculated in 1 ml of human citrated blood plasma. After about 15 minutes, a loopful of the material was plated on galactoseEndo plate so as to grow colonies separately. Sometimes, it was plated also on PR-peptone agar plate, in which RT colonies turned yellow when 10% galactose solution was poured, and kept for 1-2 hours in an incubator at 37°C as reported by us previously. RT became easily distinguishable from M-type variant by the two kinds of treatments stated above. By these treatments, moreover, the detection of RT among M-type variant was feasible in each of the media used. The number of RT colonies obtained following 10 successive subcultures exceeded than that of 5 successive cultures. It is believed, therefore, that RT might grow from M-type variant directly in the media, and M-type variant might be destroyed probably over 10000 times more intensely than RT by the influence of blood plasma in a short period of time. Thus, the increase of RT in the former and the decrease of M-type variant in the latter might result in the predominance of RT among M-type variant. There are several methods to detect this RT. But the number of RT on galactose-Endo plate is similar to that on PR peptone agar plate. This finding may be very important for the discussion of the origin of RT.
The activities of liver enzymes in mice were studied in various stages of the infection with Scllistosoma japonicum. The activities of catalase, arginase, cholinesterase, and esterase showed a progressive decrease in the late stage of the infection in Schistosomiasis. Alkaline phosphatase activity showed a slight increase in that stage. However, all enzymes in liver of mice tested showed reduction of activities in the early stage of the infection. The decrease of activity of catalase was proportional to the number of cercariae infected in some extents. A toxic influence of cercariae of S. japonicum to mice is suggested.
Tryptophan peroxidase level and its adaptive activity following administration of tryptophan were estimated in liver of mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum. Tryptophan peroxidase activity in liver of infected mice was decreased gradually with elapse of time after infection. The degree of adaptive increment of tryptophan peroxidase induced by tryptophan administration increased significantly and reached the maximum on 14th day of infection. Then, it decreased remarkably and showed subnormal level on 28th day of infection.
1. Urinary excretion of tryptophan, kynurenine and anthranilic acid was measured in normal and infected mice with Schistosoma japonicum which were administered tryptophan prior to. 2. Excretion of tryptophan and anthranilic acid in urine decreased gradually during the course of infection. Kynurenine which was not found in control urine, however, appeared in infected mice. 3. Following intraperitoneal administration of tryptophan, urinary excretion of it and its metabolites increased in all stages of the infection.
Following the cease of automatic heart beats of Bufo vulgaris by tetanic stimulations of vagus or by perfusion of acetylcholine, the ventricle was stimulated by thn rectangular puls for to purse the “strength-duration relation” (i-t curve), “I-t curves” of the cardiac muscle which was inhibited by vagal stimulation or by perfusion of acetylcholine, showed same as control. It seems that the inital effect of inhibition evoked by vagal stimulation or by perfusion of acetylcholine was limited only to the region of the pace maker and they have no influence on the excitability of the cardiac muscle in general.
Conductin velocity of impuls in the motoneuron terminal fibre of the sarotrius muscle of Bufo vulgaris was measured electrophysiologically. The action potential of the nerve and of the endplate by indirect stimulus were recorded by the cathode ray oscillograph. The latent period of the endplate potential was consisted of the conduction time of the nerve impuls in the external pathway and in the terminal fibre which runs into the muscle to the endplate. The conduction velocity of impuls in control muscle was 1.4-1.8 m/sec, that in curarized muscle was 0.68-0.89 m/sec and that in procaine treated muscle was ca. 1 m/sec. It is interesting to note that these values obtained here are very low, comparing with that in the axon of motoneuron.
Effects of eserine and di-isopropyl-fluoro-phosphate (DFP) upon the demarcation potential of the sciatic nerve of toad were studied. Demarcation potential decreased over 80% of the initial following administration of the above mentioned anticholinesterases. With the decrease of the demarcation potential, the action potential was also weakened. When the decrease of the demarcation potential proceeded under a certain limiting value, the action potential ceased. In this way the block was aroused in the axon by the effect of anticholinesterases. It seems certain that there exists intimate relationship between the demarcation potential and blocking effects of anticholinesterases. When the nerve soaked in the anticholinesterase solution and stimulated repeatedly the velocity of decrease of demarcation potential increased rapidly. In such case, the time nescessary to block the nerve completely was shortened. Non-anticholinesterases such as procaine or KCl, which act as blocking agents, also decrease the demarcation potential of the nerve, but in slight degree. It seems, there was no relationship between the blocking effect of non-anticholinesterases and the demarcation potential. From these results, it could be concluded that the long persisting depolarization of the plasma membrane of the axon was the cause of anticholinesterase block. According to the Nachmansohn's chemical theory of transmission of nerve impulse, acetylcholine becomes to persist for long time in the axon which is immersed in the anticholinesterases solution and causes a long persisting depolarization of the plasma membrane. Above mentioned results are therefore favours Nachmansohn's theory.
1. Characters of serum and erythrocytes Cholinesterase (ChE) of human female, using Benzoylcholina Chloride (BzCh) for serum and Acetyl-β-methylcholine Chloride (MeCh) for erythrocytes ChE as substrate, were studied manometrically. 2. Serum ChE displayed its optimum activity at 10-2.5 M of BzCh, and erythracytes ChE at 10-1 M of MeCh. The activity-pS curves for the enzymic hydrolysis of BzCh and MeCh were different. 3. Activities of serum and erythrocytes ChE were increaes paralleled with the dose increased and the time elapsed. 4. The mean of activity of 0.1 ml serum ChE and erythrocytes ChE in 0.1 ml blood was 86.2 and 104.9/CO2/mm3/30' respectively. Remarkable individuality of activities were found in both of them, especially in erythrocytes ChE. 5. The distribution ratio of ChE of serum and erythrocytes in blood were nearly 1 to 2.