The administration of B1 and TAD to fertilized eggs of hens showed no remarkable effects on the general growth of the chick embryo. Nevertheless a large dose of them inhibited their growth. The excretion of B1 into the allantoic. fluid and B1 content in the liver of chick embryo were increased by the administration of B1 or TAD. In the later stage of the incubation, the amount of B1 excreted into the allantoic fluid was larger in the case received B1, while B1 content in the liver was larger in the case of TAD than in the case of B1.
B1 content in saliva of human has been studied following intravenous injection of thiamine propyldisulfide. B1 content in saliva 30 seconds after the injection, when one felt the so-called“garlic smelling”, was about 3 times as much as control, and it returned to the normal content within 30 minutes after the injection. B1 in saliva was ester type. When the pH was inclined to acid, higher content of B1 was obtained in saliva.
B1, B6 and C depressed the automatism of perfused isolated heart. B1 and B6 caused dilatation of the coronary artery and contraction of the peripheral arteries, while C caused contraction of the coronary artery. They also caused rise in blood pressure and stimulation of respiration in urethanized rabbit. On isolated smooth muscle organs, B1 produced increase in tonus, while B6 decrease. On the other hand, C induced arresting of automatism by its high concentration.
The present paper deals with the fluctuation of the phagocytic ability of neutrophil leucocytes, chemocorticoid excretion in urine and Donaggio reaction of urine of young people in the busy farming season. The results obtained are as follows : 1. The phagocytic ability of neutrophil leucocytes showed a slight decrease in the beginning of the busy farming season, but in showed remarkable increase at the end of the season. 2. Urinary chemocorticoid excretion increased at the beginning and end of busy farming season. 3. The value of Donaggio reaction showed a rise at the beginning and end of the season. At the busiest period of the season this value showed the shighest. 4. More remarkable fluctuation was seen in male than in female. In view of the above findings, the phagocytic ability of neutrophil leucocytes showed a slight decrease at the shock phase, and it showed remarkable increase at the resistant phase in the busy farming season.
M-type variant (mutabile-type variant, Murase) is known to be killed by the bactericidal action of blood, as it was already described by Ono and Omae. In the present experiment, M-type variant and its original type or so-cared reverse mutant RT (Fukutome et al.) were inoculated in the same defibrinated blood, citrated plasma and serum and kept in an incubator. Subcultures were made following the schedule on galactose Endo plates to investigate any possible changes in the rate between the 2 kinds of organisms. Following about 2 hours incubation, the starting ratio of M : O or M : RT≅100 : became O>1 : 100 or less on the plate. In other words, it became easy to detect RT colonies among M-tvae by the use of serum. By this selective bactericidal action of fresh serum against M-type variant, RT was demonstrated only from the serum culture of MB strain, in which the frequency of M-RT mutation is much higher than MA strain. This fact coresponds to the results obtained from sugar fermentation tests. When RT was mixed with MA, however, RT was demonstrated provieea the aosis of MA over 10-3 mg and that of RT over 10-7 mg. When the dosis of M-type variant was below 10-2 mg, it was killed by the serum completely, whereas, RT seemed to be killed only when the dosis was below 10-8 mg. The findings of fermentation tests also confirmed the above results. These facts were also supported by the findings that RT was found either in its full amount or no growth at all. In view of the experimental results, it is believed as follows: RT grows steadily from M-type variant in the medium with or without galactose. This RT mixed in M-type variant becomes demonstrable by the synergic effects of fresh sernm, namely, the bactericidal action on M-type variant and the eugonic growth of RT itself. In the galactose broth culture, on the contrary, the RT present in it is partly ttie one inoculated with M-type variant and partly the one which generates there by mutation.
The thermal coagulation tests (Huggins cancer reaction) were procedured in sera of 97 cancer patients, 119 nonmalignant disease, 48 normal individuals and 22 experimental rats. Fifty-five out of 97 cases or 57 per cent of patients with cancer, 12 out of 119 cases or 10 per cent of persons with nonmalignat cases including tuberculosis, 3 out of 48 cases or 6.3 per cent of normal individuals showed positive results in the reaction. All rats bearing cirrhotic or cancerous livers were shown positive in Huggins reaction while 50 per cent of normal showed the same. The results of the tests were discussed with compared those of other investigators.
By the administration of a large dose of TPD caused rise in blood pressurs, stimulation of respiration and acceleration of heart beat in rabbits. However, it depressed the beat of isolated heart and dilated the coronary artery. TPD showed synergical action to adrenaline, but no effect on acetylcholine action.
Olfactory nerve of Carassius auratus, a river fish common in Japan, is consisted of two bundles of non-medullated nerve fibers. Two waves were seen in the action potential of the nerve, in the cathode ray oscillograph. The conduction velocity of the first wave was faster than the second, but the excitability of the former was lower than the latter. These facts show the existence of two kinds of fibers, i. e. fast and slow, in olfactory nerve. From the wave form of the action potential, it was elucidated that the large bundle of nerve contained both fast and slow fibers, but the small bundle contained only the fast one.
The conduction velocity of the afferent impulse was measured by recording the action potential of afferent fibers in the dorsal root of the 10 th spinal nerve of Bufo vulgaris. The conduction velocity slowed down remarkably in the spinal ganglion, but when the impulse proceeded into the dorsal root, it recoverd slightly. By anoxia the conduction velocity of the nerve fiber, especially of the spinal ganglion, became slower. Then the effect of the spinal ganglion on the recovery process of the afferent fiber was elucidated. The mechanism of retragradation of impulse in the spinal ganglion was discussed.
Perior to the experiment either Enarmon or Ovahormon was administered intramuscularly daily for two weeks to rabbits of both sexes. Then they were immunized with liquid (human serum), corpuscular (5% suspension of human O type red cells) or lipoid antibody the times every four days and changes of antibody production, body weight, and tissues were studied in each animal. The results obtained were as follows 1. By Enarmon body weight was increased in male rabbits, while in female the effect was insignificant. By Ovahormon increase of weight was considerable in male rabbits while insignificant in female. 2. No difference was observed in the production of immune precipitin in rabbits of both sexes following the administration of Enarmon. However by Ovahormon the production was worsened in male rabbits and slightly improved in female. 3. By Enarmon the production of immune agglutinin was markedly improved in male rebbits, while no difference was observed from the control in female. By Ovahormon, similarly, no difference was observed from the control in rebbits of both sexes. 4. By Enarmon the prduction of lipoid antibody was extremely poor in male rabbits. But in female rabbits, it was almost similar to that of the control. By Ovahormon the lipoid antibody production was quite poor in male rabbits and excellent in female. 5. Although no cliff ernce form the control was observed in the production of antibody, the time of the appearance was always earlier than that of the control. 6. By Enarmon the number of leucocytes decreased in male rabbits but not in female, The number of large lymph cells was increased in rabbits of both sexes. By the administration of Ovahormon, the number of erythrocytes and leucocytes was decreased in male rabbits, while neutrophile cells was increased and large lymph cells was decreased in female. 7. Either of the two hormones applied in the present study caused no change in tissues.
In the experiment the rabbits were divided into the groups which were given subcutaneous injection of 2, 4, 8, 12 mg/kg of diethyl-paranitrophenyl-thiophosphate (DPT) twice a week respectively. The morphologic changes of the central nervoussystem, especially the cerebrum of those expiring after an acute, subacute, and chronic course and those surving for a long period (120-200 days) were studied. 1) In the rupture of the blood-brain barrier, dissociation of the lamina interna and externa, porosity and dilatation of argentaffin net-work, liquefaction of argentaffin fibers, liquefaction and fragmentation of lamina externa were confirmed. However, with the prolongation of surviving period, proliferation of reticular fibers in the perivasular structure or running aadially towards the glia tissue were observed. It is inferred that this proliferation of mesenchymal element is an edematous sclerosis. 2) Edemotous porosity is frequently accompanied by insudation of high molecular protein substance (PAS positive), and coincides with the ruptured lesion of the blood-brain barrier locally. It is considered that the cause of cerebral edma is classified into the edema in disturbance of the blood-brain barrier. These lesions were often found in the internal capsule, white matter above the ventricles and in the globus pallidus, reticular nucleus of thalamus, and lower portion of thalamus. 3) Edmatous environment does not always indicate an uniform mesenchymal reaction. In addition to the time factor, it was noted that the nuclei located at the cerebral basis and internal capsule were locus of mesenchymal reaction. 4) Demyelinized lesions were confirmed in the internal capsule, corpus callosum, white matter of the mesencephalon, subcortical area above the ventricles. Morphologically, they were found in the perivascular area, especially coordinating with the rupture of the perivoscular structure. Considering the metabolic mechanism of myelin, the author should like to acknowledge the vascular factor in the present experiment. 5) The movement of the glia cells in influenced by the degree of myelin sheath destruction and time factor. In the acute stage the glia cells are chiefly of the ameboid type and oligodendrogliacytes appear. In the chronic stage participation of satellite cells is conspicuous. Anisomorphic gliosis is found in the juxavascular area and isomorphic gliosis in the distant region. As scavenger cells are not found, dysfunction of glia cells may be considered. 6) Gliosis in the gray matter is not uniform and greatly influenced by the degree of destruction, time factor and participation of myelin sheath. In the present experimet morpological changes of globus pellidus and reticular nucleus of thalamus are most conspicuous. 7) Various types of nerve cell degeneration were recognized, and some specific findings were seen in certain areas. Marked edematous environement leads to a liquefactive process of acute swelling and adds vasuolar changes. On the other hand, lack of such an environement leads to cellular atrophy and frequently accompanies calcification. In other words, degenerative changes of nerve cells is influenced by the blood-brain barrier, edematous environment and time factor. Although neuronophagia is confirmed during the process of liquefaction, it is especially conspicuous in the nuclei where myelin sheath participates.
Oxygen consumption of the placental chorion in the case of normal pregnancy, abortion, premature labor and toxemia of pregnancy were measured by warburg's method and the influence of sex hormones on the oxygen consumption was also studied, in order to investigate placental activity by measuring the oxygen consumption of placental chorion. The results of measured 344 cases were as follows. 1) As for chorionic tissue of placenta of normal pregnant the oxygen consumption gradually increased from the 6 th week of pregnancy and showed its maximum value (3.51±0.04) at the 13th-15th week and thereafter gradually decreased. It was 1.00±0.11 at the 40 th week and low when the pregnancy is over term. 2) Respiration rate of chorionic tissue of placenta of abortion or premature labor were lower than that of normal pregnancy. 3) There was no marked difference in the respiration rate of placenta of toxemia and that of normal pregnancy. 4) The respiration rate of chorionic tissue of normal pregnancy suffered little influence by Estrogen, Progesterone and Gonadotropine. Testosterons reduced it remarkably. Methlandrostendiol lowered it slightly. Hexestrol and Diethylbibenzyl lowered slightly. 5) Lowered respiration rate of chorinic tissue of abortion was remarkably increased by. estrogen progesterone and slightly increased by gonadotropine and methylandrostendiol had no effect.