Actions on frog's skeletal muscle with sciatic nerve were studied about four tranquillizing drugs; chlorpromazine, reserpine, phenobarbital sodium and meprobamate. In our observations at the level of minimum effective doses, it is noticed that there is a relationship among these like chlorpromazine<reserpine<phenobarbital sodium=meprobamate.
The relation between the herniation due to cerebral swelling and the angio-architectural nosologic significance represented physically by the anoxia of the brain has been probed, with special analysis of the process of local lesion in stem ganglia. 1) When the Aa. corporis striati anteriores, is compressed due to cerebral swelling at the base of the brain by sphenoid ridge or tentorial edge, necrosis results at the front half of Putamen and Caput nuclei caudati which are its supply area. As an example of this case, the post mortem examination of traumatic cerebral swelling has been given here. 2) When the Aa. corporis striati mediae is compressed, necrosis results in the upper half of the Caput nuclei caudati, the Putamen and a section of the Globus pallidus. As an example, the post mortem examination of protracted hanging and protracted carbon monoxide poisoning has been given. 3) When the A. chorioidea anterior is compressed, necrosis results in the Globus pallidus. As an example, the post mortem examination of protracted carbon monoxide poisoning has been given, though many such examples have been given to date. 4) Whether the local necrosis in stem ganglia is of bilateral or unilateral nature depends on the difference in solidity related with the degree of cerebral swelling and the congenital course of the blood vessels or the acquired arterial sclerosis. In view of the foregoing, the occurrence of local necrosis in stem ganglia can be recognized in deaths of various causes where hypoxia continues to exist, but the necrosis section cannot be differentiated according to deaths of specific cause. The reason is that the damaged section will be decided by finding out which artery scattered in stem ganglia has been compressed. In other words, the uniform explanation is that compression is related with herniation of the brain.
Mucoid M, a mutant originating from Mutabile-type Var. of Murase, was cultured on galactose agar and Mucoid RT, a mutant being deprived of the M character of Mucoid M, on nutrient agar. The developed slime was collected, dialyzed against running tap water and dried. Bacterial cells were processed in the same way to prepare a similar dry material. These materials were hydrolyzed with sulfuric acid. The hydrolyzed were neutralized with barium hydroxide and dried again. Determinations for sugars with special reference to galactose were carried out on these materials. The strains for preparing these materials were mutants of S. typhi-murium RD 1819 and E. coli 3. The results obtained may be summarized as follows: 1) The hydrolyzates of the slime formed clear inhibition zones against M when assayed by the cup-plate microbiological method of Fukutome et al., while MT (a galactose resistant mutant of M) formed many colonies in the inhibition zones. The formation of inhibition zones was not influenced by fermentation of the sample by the galactose non-fermenting MT. Paper chromatography showed a galactose spot in the sample treated with MT. These results indicate that formation of the inhibition zoned by the slime hydrolyzate may be dependent upon the presence of galactose in it. 2) The concentration of the inhibiting substance in the slime hydrolyzate obtained from either S. typhi-murium or E. coli was 6.4 % when determined by the cup- or disc-plate method with M as the test organisms. As to the materials originating from Mucoid RT, the corresponding figures were 6.4-12.8 % for S. typhi-murium and 6.4 % for E. coli. 3) Two dimensional paper chromatography demonstrated the presence of, at least, glucose, rharnnose, arabinose and mannose (from Mucoid RT only) in addition to galactose. 4) The dried slime obtained from the Mucoid M grown on galactose agar added with galactose-1-14C contained a high activity. Such a material was hydrolyzed and separated by paper chromatography. The highest count was detected in the area which corresponded to the spot containing the total activity when a mixture of galactose-1-14C and a non-labeled hydrolyzate was separated under the same conditions. 5) A large portion of the count in the culture of Mucoid M was detected in the slime. The ratio of the count in the dry material from the bacterial cells to that from the slime was calculated to be about 1: 10. 6) The count in the material from M or MT was much lower than that in the material from mucoid types. 7) Approximately the same count was detected in the slime and in the bacterial cell materials from Mucoid RT. 8) From the foregoing results, it may be concluded that Mucoid M, which is believed to be impossible to synthesize galactose because of the enzymatic defect takes free galactose added to the medium and synthesize the slime layer from it probably through galactose-l-phosphate-UDP galactose. This conclusion is supported also by the finding that galactose in the combined form is contained as a constituent in the slime of Mucoid M. The fact that the slime is not formed unless galactose is available may indicate the necessity of galactose for synthesis of the slime of Mucoid M. Another fact that the same proportion of count was detected in the slime and in the bacterial cells of Mucoid RT may be explained by the assumption that 14C had been transferred to different metabolic cycles of galactose and therefore the ratio of 14C deposited in other parts than the slime may have been larger than in Mucoid M.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether pulmonary tumors in mice originate from alveolar or from bronchiolar epithelial cells. Lecithin-water suspension with 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide was injected into mice subcutaneously and pulmonary tumors were induced in the most of animals. The tumors were histogenetically examined by serial section of lung lobes. The following result was obtained. The greater majority of the lung cancers were considerd to be originated from bronchiolar epithelium. In a few tumors, however, it seemed to be originated from alveolar epithelium. It was observed that, lung carcinomas were often found in the adenomatous areas.
Durin past five years, 26 patients of lung fibrosis following the preventive irradiation against metastasis and recurrence of the breast cancer were experienced in our clinic. Clinical observation of 4 cases who had radiation pneumonitis after irradiation were reported.
Four cases with breast pain as chief complaint after several months or years following the plastic operation of breast were experienced in our clinic. Patho-histological observation of excised specimens from these four cases were reported.