In orthopedic surgery, particularly in osteopathic situations including atrophy of the bone and osteoporosis as well as for the promotion of knitting and postoperative growth of the bone, there exists an increasing tendency toward the use of anabolic steroids which promote potassium, phosphorus and calcium retentions and has recently been shown to give an impetus toward increase in collagen content in the connective tissue and retention of acid mucopolysaccharides by the bone matrix. However, because of the undesirable androgenic effects, synthetic steroids which retain the anabolic activity of testosterone and at the same time virtually free of its androgenic effects are generally prescribed in the aformentioned clinical situations. Massive doses of a anabolic steroid have been described to eventually affect the epiphyseal cartilage alone in causing depression of its growth in young laboratory animals, whereas by other investigators, the growth-suppressive effects of the steroid both on epiphyseal cartilage and on diaphyses have been reported to be in evidence. The present study represents an attempt to clarify the influence of overdosage of a protein anabolic steroid on the skeletal growth in the young using chick embryos. Materials and Methods: Fertile White Leghorn eggs ranging in weight from 45 to 60 gm obtained from an imbred colony were incubated with their surface maintained at a constant temperature of 103°F and with a relative humidity between 60 and 70 per cent. Overturned twice daily, the embryonated eggs were given injections of solutions of a anabolic steroid at concentrations as to permit administration of 0, 25 and 2, 500 mcg of the compound per embryo respectively at seven days after initation of the incubation. Two additional groups of embryonated eggs received distilled water and none respectively on the same day to serve as controls. Thirteen-, sixteen- and nineteen-day-old embryos and two-day-old chicks from all these groups of eggs euthanatized with diethyl ether, on which the following examinations were performed: determination of body weight, gross pathologic examination, soft ray radiography, osteometric determination of the right femur, and microscopic examination of hematoxyline-eosine-stained or silver ni-trate-treated preparations of the whole thighbone. Results: Both lenghts of long axis of the femur and body weight in embryos in the dosage group were practically comparable to those observed with the control, whereas with the embryos given high doses of the steroid, significant depression of gain in respect of these two parameters was evident. In 16-day-old embryos of the control and low dosage groups it was prominent that there were formation of trabeculae and a concomitant evidence of trabecular consolidation and compactness with resultant enlargement of intramedullary space. Greater distinction of the epiphyseal chondrocyte layers was also demonstrable with these groups of embryos. In contrast, there existed a tendency for the rate of trabecular and chondroepiphyseal formation as well as that of expansion of the cavum medullare to be undoubtedly depressed, and it was not until 19 to 23 day of age that overt formation of trabecular consolidation and compactness and expansion of the cavity became in evidence and not until the 23rd day following onset of the incubation that capital cartilaginous demarcation became clearly observed The data stressing close rations between findings for the capital cartilage and those for the diaphyseal tissue indicate that the anabolic steroid affects both epiphyseal cartilage and diaphysis in the young.
“Atypical-coarctation of aorta”is used more in Japan than in the other country. The arm blood pressure was different from that of lower leg in it. Hemodynamic study was performed with dog experimentation and model experiment. Artificial coarctation was made with beneer band on the descending aorta in the chest of dog, on the abdominal aorta above and below renal artery. Each pressure above and below the aortic coarctation was recorded. Especially, beneer band was kept regular space. Being influenced by coarctation, heart function changed variously. Intracardiac pressure and the first delivative value with calibration was measured in left ventricle. Measurement of calibrated pressure curves revealed that reduction at external aortic round which was greater than 26 to 35 per cent was required to produce any changes in arterial pressure. The effects of successively greater reductions on systolic, diastolie and pulse pressure, and the first delivative value, above and below, the constriction were conveniently summerized. In perfect occulusion, the mean of systemic pressure was 226 mmHg, diastolic pressure was 127 mmHg, and the first delivative value was 1669 mmHg/sec. Systemic pressure and the first delivative value in left ventricle were rapidly elevated at external aortic round which was greater than 36 to 45 per cent. Ejection sound in vascular murmur was producted any changes with the progress of coarctation. The first murmur was greater than 16 to 25 per cent at region of coarctation. In model experimentation, Reyneld's number and amplitude of murmur did not paralleled at all, however murmur was appeared on Reyneld's number 60000.
So-called yeast fermentation-reductometry, one of the well utilized method for the determination of galactose, was examined by the cup-plate method of microbioassay using galactose sensitive M (Murase) and its galactose nonfermenting MT variant of enteric bacteria (Salm. typhi-murium) . Experimental data were obtained as follows; 1) Minimal dose of growth inhibition zone of M measured by the cup-plate method was 2γ per 0.1 ml. through-out the experiment. 2) Effect of galactose to M was interfered and depressed by the fermentable carbohydrate mingled. 3) No interference was observed in the sample in which 16γ of galactose was mingled with 125γ of glucose per 0.1 ml. When the glucose dose was over 2000γ or more, interference phenomenon became remarkable and no inhibition zone was built. 4) Capacity of interference of the carbohydrate mingled depends upon its type and dose. 5) In the fermentation reaction of 11 types of ordinary carbohydates, 9 out of them except galactose and lactose were fermented by MT and 4-5 types including galactose by yeast. Therefore, the pattern of fermentation of MT is rather wider than yeast. 6) In the single solution of 16γ per 0.1 ml, almost all the galactose was fermented by the yeast at 10 hr, with exception of not utilizing at the same duration, by the presentation both galactose and glucose. 7) In this experiment, yeast did not ferment xylose and arabinose. So the sample has the whole capacity of reducing power including galactose. 8) In the mixed solution of 16r of galactose and 500γ of glucose (xylose or arabinose) per 0.1 ml, MT fermented the whole reducing carbohydrates except galactose which showed the same inhibition zone line as the control. No galactose was found lost. 9) Even after 1 hr. of yeast fermentation (0.25 hr. according to the reference) still remained much more part of carbohydrate mingled. In the yeast f ermentation-reductometry, carbohydrate remained in the sample after yeast treatment was generally thought to be galactose. From the above results it was belived as follows; Yeast can not ferment galactose markedly in such a short period as 0.25 hr. described in the reference and rather large amount of the mingled carbohydrate may be left not fermented. Yeast ferments galactose distinctly if it works until the mingled carbohydrates may be consumed. Though MT would ferment the mingled carbohydrates perfectly, even 2γ of galactose per 0.1 ml, the starting dose, would not be lost. Fermentation pattern of MT in ordinary carbohydrates distributes wider than that of yeast. Reductometry is a method to measure the reducing carbohydrates including galactose. Cup-plate method using M is a specific one for the determination of galactose and galactose part. Furthermore, there is no need to ferment the mingled carbohydrates, if the rate of glucose or other carbohydrates to galactose is 16γ to 125γ per 0.1ml.
Physical examination on heart-lung perfusion and ventilation of patient with heart disease was performed by radioisotopes and the results were discussed clinically. The perfusion of upper lungs in P. A. system in the case of heart diseases increased more definitely than that of no heart disease. But few changes of ventilation were observed on upper lungs in the case of heart diseases. For this reason, the ventilation-perfusion ratio of heart diseases were lower than that of normals. T/F differs distinctiy from ASD on angiograph which was done by 99mTc. In a case of T/F, appearance of the radioisotope on lungs was not sooner than on Aorta. In a case of ASD, on the other hand, the radioisotope was found systematically in vena cava, right heart, pulmonal artery, lungs, and left heart in order of the appearance.