Effects of TEA on the configulation of action potential of cardiac muscle in Rana catesibiana and Bufo vulgaris was studied, using the suction electrode which was devised by Ozawa. Ozawa's suction electrode has been proved that it can record the monophasic action potential as exact as intracellular electrode. TEA-Ringer solution was prepared replacing Na+in Ringer by isotonic TEA. And in need, hypertonic TEA-Ringer was used, adding sucrose into TEA-Ringer solution. TEA had no effect on rising rate of action potential of ventricle and atrium, however its amplitude was remarkablly enhanced and plateau was prolonged. Enhancement of amplitude is caused by TEA which is considered to accelerate -the influx of Ca++. And prolongation of plateau is caused by K+eflux inhibiting action of TEA. Enhancement of amplitude of action potential reached to its maximum 15-20 minutes after bathing the cardiac muscle in TEA-Ringer, and thereafter it diminished gradually, but the prolongation of duration of action potential continued for long time. In later stage of TEA action, the action potential was separated into spike and slow potential. Separation of action potential is considered as inhibiting action of TEA of Ca++influx. TEA action is considered dual way, i.e. at first acceleration and then inhibition on Ca++ influx. In TEA-Ringer solution, cardiac muscle strip react to single shock with repetative responses, which repeat more than hundred times. In hypertonic TEA-Ringer solution, action potential was separated in spike and slow rcomponent and the latter was exceedingly reduced. Spike component was divided into several spikes and end of slow component showed oscilations.
A new stimulating apparatus which can generate lineally increasing current with variable increasing rate and variable voltage was devised. With this apparatus, smooth muscle of ureter (guinea pig) was stimulated, and threshold voltages (V) and excitation times (t) were measured. V-t relation was hyperbolic, and no“Einschleichen”was observed. There was, therefore, no critical gradient of stimulating current, that is, even by very slowly increasing current could be excited this muscle, when it reached to rheobasic voltage.
In the attempt to elucidate the immunological mechanism of bacterial vaccine therapy in bronchial asthma the therapeutical effect of a polyvalent vaccine, Broncasma Berna, was examined in 64 cases of bronchial asthma. Result: 1) Of the cases showing positive immediate type skin reaction to Broncasma Berna (B.B.), there were a considerable number in which reagin against B.B, was present. 2) With B.B. treatment blocking antibody to B.B. became apparant and this trend was higher in the clinically effective cases. 3) The skin reaction threshold is reduced by B.B. treatment. 4) The rate of appearance of B.B. blocking antibody is not affected by increase in age but a trend for suppression was noted with long term administration of steroid. 5) The time for effect to become apparant was later in the cases showing a negative immediate type skin reaction to B.B. compared to the positive cases. 6) The result suggest that B.B. has both a specific desensitizing and a specific immunizing activity.
In toxemia of pregnancy in late stage, principal lesions occur in the vasorenal system: increased vasoconstrictive response to pressors during pregnancy is considered to be involved in the manifestations of toxemia of pregnancy, such as hypertension. In a total of 165 patients including normal women pregnant for 28 weeks or more, pregnant women suffering from toxemia of pregnancy and puerpera either normal or with persisting toxemic symptoms, the author has made an analysis of plethysmographic findings obtained during Aschner's eyeball pressure test, the cold pressor test or noradrenalin tolerance test to determine whether or not it is possible to predict the onset and prognosis of toxemia of pregnancy. 1) Among patients already suffring from toxemia of pregnancy, there was a high incidence of positive cold pressor test. Noradrenaline test proved to be more useful in forboding the development of toxemia of pregnancy, which actually occurred in 66.7% of positive cases subsequently. 2) Abnormal sphygmoplethysmographic patterns were observed in 73.9% of pregnant women suffering from toxemia of pregnancy. Toxemia of moderate or higher severity developed later in 44.5% of normal pregnant women with abnormal sphygmoplethysmographic patterns. Such patterns associated with tolerance tests, however, were of significantly high incidence only in the group of patients with toxemia of pregnancy, and hence not useful enough in foretelling the pathogenesis of the disease. 3) An analysis of sphygmoplethysmographic patterns revealed no significant difference between normal pregnant women with edema of mild severity developing subsequently and those remaining normal throughout the trial. In normal pregnant women presenting with proteinuria and hypertension in the subsequent course, there was an increase in increment index along with a decrease in conduction time of pulse wave, a tendency observed more markedly during tolerance tests. Thus, increased peripheral resistance preceded the manifestation of symptoms in pretoxemic pregnant women. 4) In case of preexisting toxemia of pregnancy with gradually aggravating symptoms, there was an increase in increment, decrement and dicrotic indices together with a decrease ni ejection time index and conduction time of pulse wave. This implies that the risk of toxemia may be greater in the case of peripheral resistance tending to increase more sharply. It may be concluded from these results that moderate or severe toxemia will be of higher incidence among patients presenting with positive noradrenalin test, abnormal sphygmoplethysmographic patterns, increased increment index or reduced conduction time of pulse wave and especially among those in whom such a tendency is more accentuated in the cold pressor or noradrenalin test, and that toxemia of pregnancy is more likely to be aggravated in patients already suffering from the condition in whom the indices tend to decline, and more markedly in the cold pressor test.
To elucidate the mechanism of drug hypersensitivities, the studies on antibody specific for chloramphenicol (Cp) and on immunological lesions of cells and tissues were made on 300 cases with the past history of Cp receiving and rabbits sensitized with Cp azo-conjugated BSA or RSA, by means of the Passive haemagglutination test (PHA), in vitro lysis of blood leucocytes and Fluoresceint technique. The results obtained were as follows; 1) In human, PHA titer proved positive in 9.4 per cent of 300 cases with the past history of Cp receiving, especially high positive in patients of allergic disorders or collagen diseases. In rabbits sensitized with Cp, anti-Cp antibodies were almost positive, especially markedly high titer in rabbits with Cp-BSA or Cp-RSA intradermaly. 2) Fluoresceint technique showed high positive of subjects in humans and rabbits received Cp, the specific staining was observed mainly in cytoplasma of polymorph nuclear cells and lymphcyte. In human, fluoresceint positive rate was statistically corelated with that of PAH or in vitro lysis of blood leucocytes. 3) In rabbits bone marrow, erythroblastic cells remarkable decreased wheras granular cells few decrease, lymphcytes were somewhat relative increased. In peripheral blood bilds there were no abnormal findings.
A new plasma expander, hydroxyethyl starch solution (HES) was used clinically. The solution 500 ml was administrated in 15 minutes on 31 cases (male 15 cases, female 16 cases), having no concern with body weight, age and sex. Cases were divided into two main groups, a group of only general anesthesia without operation (Anesthesia group) aan a group of receiving operation during general anesthesia (Surgery group) . The results were follows: 1. Circulatory blood volume and plasma volume increased immediately after rapid infusion of HES and maintained up to 60-120 minutes. 2. 20-30% of HES was excreted in urine during 120 minutes. 3. Administration of HES has not effected upon acid-base balance and serum electrolytes. 4. Osmotic diuresis was observed, followed by increased urinary volume and decreased urinary osmolarity, in anesthesia group. Renal function seems not be affected by HES.