Studies of several factors influential over the biosynthesis of ceruloplamin were made on copper deficient rats and rabbits, because there are possiblities of ceruloplasmin being controlled by iron and hormones. Copper promotes the biosynthesis of apo-ceruloplasmin, iron exerts an inductive effect on the biosynthesis of ceruloplasmin and inductive effect on the biosynthesis of ceruloplasmin, and estrogen promotes the biosynthesis of ceruloplasmin. Ceruloplasmin itself is inhibitory to the biosynthesis of ceruloplamin in the liver These results provide evidence of a theory that ceruloplasmin acts promotively on mobilization of deposit iron in tissues and plasma iron turnover rate, but there is a feed-back mechanism between ceruloplasmin and iron metabolism that, in the presense of anemia, the serum ceruloplasmin is increased so as to enhance iron metabolism, but as anemia is recovered to normal, the serum ceruloplasmin itself suppresses the biosynthesis of ceruloplasmin, tc restore its normal level.
It has been described that serum ceruloplasmin is markedly elevated in various biliary obstructive disorders, but the underlying mechanism is yet unknown in many respects. This investigation represents an attempt to clarify the mechanism from the viewpoint of biosynthesis of ceruloplasmin by experiments to rats with ligated biliary tracts. After sample of blood were drawn to assay for serum ceruloplasmin, alkaline phosphattase and bilirubin, the rats with cholangioligation were given intravenous injection of 64Cu and the consequent measurement of serum 64Cu-ceruloplasmin level at regular intervals was carried out. The results obtained were follows 1. Serum ceruloplasmin showed a sharp increase from 48 hours after bile tract ligation. 2. The elevation of serum cerulasmin in bile tract-ligated rats was noted to have positive correlation with increase of serum alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. 3. 64Cu uptake by the liver and kindney ligated rats did not differ significantly from those of the control. 4. Animals with cholangioligation displayed evidence of increased cerulopasmin biosynthesis in the liver at 48 and 72 hours after ligation. Although the possibility of suppression of hepatic ceruloplasmin clearance (decomposition and excretion) cannot be ruled out as a contributing factor, the serum ceruloplasmin elevation observed in ligated rats seems to reflect chiefly increased biosynthesis of ceruloplasmin because there was neither evidence of significant dilution of injected isotope in the serum nor did the hepatic or renal 64Cu uptake in ligated animal differ significantly from the controls. The experiment in rats demonstrates elevation of serum ceruloplasmin following ligation of the biliary duct, as in patients with various biliary obstructive disorders who are known to show such increase of the ceruloplasmin. The experimental findings obtained suggest that the underlying mechanism consists in increased ceruloplasmin biosynthesis as is the rule with serum alkaline phosphatase.
Physiologically, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) plays important role in the central nervous system as well as other bioamines. Various neurological symptoms might be occured due to the changes of these amines' level in brain. Presently, effects of harmine on the oxidations of 5-HT and tyramine were studied in vivo using rat brain and liver monoamine oxidase (MAO) . MAO activity and contents of 5-HT in rat brain were measured manometrically and fluorometrically, respectively. Following results were obtained : 1) When 5-HT was used as a substrate, MAO activity in rat brain was completely inhibited in 1 hour after administration of harmine (30 mg/kg i.p.) . 2) By administration of harmine (30 mg/kg i, p.), the oxidation of 5-HT catalysed by MAO in rat brain was inhibited much more than that of tyramine. 3) A little inhibition of MAO activity in rat liver by harmine was observed. 4) The 5-HT level in rat brain decreased in 1 hour after administration of harmine and then gradually increased to reach the peak in 3 hours and restored in 10 hours after administration. The content of 5-HT was about twice of the control at the peak.
Six hundred and eighty nine newborns were studied in order to better elucidate the mechanisms causing the deformity of the head of infants at birth. Measurements of the infants head was carried out immediately after birth and every day theraf ter, up to the 6 th day. Measurement of the fetal head was carried out by x-ray and ultrasonic method. 1. The biparietal diameter of the infants' head measured by ultrasonic and x-ray methods gave a correlation coefficient of r=+0.920. 2. Any deformity in the infants' head at birth was repaired around the third postpartum day. 3. In the pelvis with a flat sacrum, there was pronounced shortening of the circumference around the suboccipitobregmatic diameter of the infants head. There was marked shortening of anterior-posterior diameter of the infants head noted in the pelvis with a flat entrance. 4. When the difference between the shortest anteriorposterior diameter of the pelvis and largest transverse diameter of the infants head is less than 1 cm, or the difference between the anterior-posterior diameter of the wides part of the pelvis and biparietal diameter of the infants head is less than 2 cm, or that the distance between the spina ischiadica of the pelvis and largest diameter of the infants' head is less than 0.5 cm, the largest transverse diameter of the infants' head is markedly shortened at birth. 5. The moulding of the infant's head delivered from a pelvic position is less than that delivered from a head presentation. 6. The moulding of the head of the first born child is more than that of second or later infants. 7. Deformity of the infant's head tends to be greater in deliveries requiring more than 20 hours than in those requiring less than 8 hours. These observations would indicate that the deformity of the infant's head at birth is mainly due to the resistance of the bony and soft birth canal and not due to the resistance of the infant's head itself.
The incidence and distribution of pulmonary megakaryocytes were studied in 100 unselected autopsy cases. Eighteen newborn infants were included in these cases. The causes of death were malignant neoplasms (44 cases), cardiovascular lesions (20 cases), inflammatory diseases (9 cases), and miscellaneous (27 cases) . The results were as follows ; 1. In 79 cases out of 82 adult ones (96.3%), pulmoary megakaryocytes were found in the pulmonary capillary bed. But the number of megakaryocytes was quite variable from case to case, that is, there was very great individual difference, the cause of which, however, was not clarifid. 2. In 8 cases out of 18 newborn infants, no pulmonary megakaryocytes were found and in 16 cases only 0 to 4 megakaryocytes were identified. 3. The distribution of megakaryocytes in each pulmonary lobe was almost equal, but the number of megakaryocytes in the right middle lobe was somewhat fewer. 4. Pulmonary megakaryocytes with distinct cytoplasm were very few, counting only ca. 1.7%, and the great majority had naked nuclei. 5. The difference of incidence of pulmoary megakaryocytes due to different diseases was not revealed. 6. The appearance of megakaryocytes in the pulmonary capillary bed may be considered as physiological event, as formerly insisted. 7. Whether pulmonary megakaryocytes do release platelets actually or not could not be clarified in. this study.
The authoo found that when kanamycin was used in the treatment of epidemic paratitis, its translocation into the saliva is increased in case of the child who has inflammation in the salivary gland. To investigate whether this phenomenon is due to inflammation or general infection, the author induced various general infections and local inflammations in rabbits, than administered Ampicillin (AB-PC) or Cephaloridine (CER) to them, and examined its translocation by determining the concentration in parotid saliva, mixed saliva, accumulated saliva and blood, obtaining the results reported in this paper.
A fulminant hepatitis was experimentally induced in 5 out of 20 rabbits by inoculation with duodenal juice, obtained from patients with infectious hepatitis, by the combination of daily injections of steroid hormone and insulin. Histologic findings were characterized by multifocal liver necrosis surrounding by infiltration of a great number of polymorphonuclear lemocytes and mononucler cells. These findings were observed during the period between 5 and 12 days after injection of duodenal juice. The pathological findings were closely similar to acute yellow atrophy of the liver of human. Rabbits, used as a control, which were injected only steroid-hormones and insulin showed no abnormality by the light microscopy. Laboratory test, including S-GOT and S-GPT, showed no significant difference between experiment and control animals, although S-GOT of a rabbit rised slightly after injection of duodenal juice. Immunolo-fluorescent study, using F.I.T.C. (Fluorescein isothiocyanate) labeled rabbit antibody against Australian antigen, showed no specific staining in the liver tissue at all.
Polychlorobiphenyls-tetra (TCB) was injected subcutaneously in rabbits in doses of 80 mg/kg three times a week for 15 days. Relative weight of liver and kidney to body weight was increased in the TCB treated animals. In TCB trcated rabbits, triglyceride content of the liver was increased associated with the elevation of plasma FFA level and plasma concentration of triglyceride was also increased in comparison with those of control rabbits. The results indicate that the elevation of plasma FFA was followed by the increase of plasma triglyceride concentration. Agarose gel electrophoresis of plasma in TCB treated rabbits revealed the increase in propotion of pre-beta lipoprotein concomitant with the decrease in that of alpha lipoprotein.
Two cases of the idiopathic rupture of normal colons have been reported and as many as 26 cases have been obtained from the medical literature. 18 cases of them were involved in sigmoid, 5 cases in rectum, and two cases in tranverse colon. It is difficult to explain the cases of the mechanism of perforation, but there can be seen many kinds of theories on the cause of rupture. The impaction of the hard fecal mass in colon may lead to the causes of necrosis and perforation. On the antimesenteric wall of the colon, the blood-supply is poorest. The intraabdominal pressure at evacuation may cause the perforation in the rectum. There were 13 deathes among 28 patints, but any better improvement of perforation may give a promising perspective for the earlier recovery of the idiopathic rupture.
A 21 year old, male patient came to the hospital because of dyspnea as chief complaint. Chest roentgenography revealed an enlarged cardiac shade and pleurisy in the right chest, and he was immediately hospitalized. Examination in detail showed that the leukocyte count was 10, 600, and the myeloblas was 80% in the peripheral blood, and puncture of the spinal cord revealed that myeloblast was 92.6%.A diagnosis of acute myeloleukmia was established. Because puncture of the thoracic cavity detected many leukemic cells which were identical in propperty with peripheral myeloblasts, antileukemic agents were administered by both the systemic route and the local inf uson into the thoracic cavity, but proved not markedly effective. On the 9 th day of hospitalization, the patient died of cardiac failure. In autopsy, marked leukemic cell infiltrations were observed in the pleura and pericardium. Although complication of leukemia by pleurisy has frequently been reported, yet because such a case where the cardiopulmonary symptoms remain in the foreground throughout the course, with pericarditis and pleurisy as incipient symptoms, e.g., the patient presented herein, is rare and interesting, the findings in this patient are presented in the foregoing.