Effects of Schizophyllan (SPG), a glucan produced by Schizophyllum commune, on experimental candidiasis of mice were examined. (1) When the mice infected with Candida albicans were treated with SPG, the prolongation of life-span was recognized to some extent. (2) No marked increase of the protective effect of SPG could be observed in combination with amphotericin B, clotrimazole, or 5-fluorocytocine. (3) The time course for changes of viable number of C. albicans in various organs of mice revealed that the rate of decrease of viable number in blood of SPG-treated mice was more rapid than that in control animals. However, the viable number of C. albicans in liver, lung and kidney was nearly the same in both groups. (4) The rate of clearance of C. albicans inoculated into peritoneal cavity was greater in SPG-treated mice than that in control. (5) The measurement of viable number of C. albicans in cultivated macrophages showed that the fungicidal activity were much higher in the macrophages from SPG-treated mice than those from control. (6) Both the percent phagocytosis and phagocytic index were greater in cultivated macrophages from SPG-treated mice than those from control. (7) The morphological studies on C. albicans phagocytized into macrphages demonstrated that the growth of the organism in cultivated macrophages from SPG-treated mice was slower than that from control.
We investigated the effects of combined administration or after treatment of NKK-105 and its rerated compounds on the ethionine-induced fatty liver in the rats, and obtained the following results. 1) The liver/body weight ratio decreased by the administration of ethionine (250mg/ kg, s. c. daily for 4 days) . An decrease of liver/body weight ratio by ethionine inhibited by the administration of NKK-105 and its related compounds with a dose of 50 mg/kg, p.o. But NKK-105 and its related compounds 250 mg/kg, p.o. administered group showed an increase of liver/body weight ratio more than control group. 2) Ethionine administered group showed a decrease in protein contents of liver and serum. NKK-105 and its related compounds inhibited the decrease of protein by the administration of ethionine, especially in NKK-105, 250 mg/kg, p. o. administered group and it was showed an increase of protein more than control group. 3) The liver lipid contents of ethionine administered group showed a significantly increase in total lipid (TL), total choresterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) and a decrease in phospholipid (PL) . NKK-105 and its related compounds inhibited the increase of TL, TC and TG and decrease of PL by the administration of ethionine. 4) The serum lipid contents of ethionine administered group showed a decrease of TL, TC, TG and PL. NKK-105 and its related compounds inhibited the decrease of serum lipid contents by the administration of ethionine. NKK-105, 250 mg/kg, p.o. administered group showed an increase of over control group. 5) The rise of serum transaminase activity was observed by the administration of ethionine. This transaminase activity rising action of ethionine was inhibited by the admi-nistration of NKK-105 and its related compounds. 6) Histologic examination of ethionine-induced fatty liver showed a diffusional fatty degeneration and centrilobular necrosis. NKK-105 showed an inhibitory effect of these histological response to ethionine administration.
Mucosal ferritin was isolated from rat intestinal mucosa. The precipitin test in gel revealed no serological difference between rat mucosal and liver ferritin. The Fe/Protein ratio of purified mucosal ferritin was strikingly lower than than that of rat liver ferritin. The isoelectric points of mucosal iso-ferritins were shifted to lower pH (pH 4.80-5.10) than those of rat liver isof erritins (pH 5.15-5.45) . The amino acid composition values were significantly different for liver and mucosal ferritin. Mucosal ferritin was found in both the brush border fraction and the supernatant fraction of mucosal cellular components.
The systolic time intervals (STI) at rest show normal values several months after the infarction in most cases with myocardial infarction and do not differ significantly from those of normal control subjects. In order to see the difference between these two groups, the cardiac functions, especially the STI, after loading exercise were investigated in this study. The subjects employed were 33 patients who had relatively short intervals after the infarction (AMI group), 37 patients who have survived more than 6 months after the infarction (OMI group), and 24 normal control subjects. The exercise test was performed with a bicycle ergometer and the amount of load was 50 W for 5 minutes. The influence of the test with 75 W load was also investigated in the cases who well tolerated the test with 50 W load. The electrocardiogram, phonocardiogram, carotid pulse traching and blood pressure were recorded before, immediately after and every one minute untill 6 minutes after the test, and cardiac output was measured before, just after and 3 minutes after the test. Using these data, preejection period (PEP), ejection time (ET), electromechanical systole (QS2), PEP/ET ratio, heart rate (HR), mean blood pressure (MBP), Katz's Index (KI), cardiac index (CI) and stroke index (SI) were calculated. The differences between the data before and after the exercise test were also calculated and the revolution formulae based on the differences were obtained. The revolution formulae and the differences of the AMI-, OMI- and C group were compared at each time point of investigation. The difference between the groups with positive and negative exercise test, the differences between the tests with 50W and 75 W load, and the time course of the findings of the tests in an identical case were also investigated. No significant difference was observed among these three groups in the value of each parameter. The parameters with which the revolution formulae were introduced in these 3 groups were ΔPEPc, ΔPEP/ET ratio, ΔHR, ΔMBP, and ΔKI. The parameter increased temporarily from immediately after to 6 minutes after the exercise and the amounts of values were in the order of those in AMI-, OMI- and C group. Comparing the difference in the acute phase with those in the chronic phase in an identical cases, the difference of the latter was smaller than that of the former. The difference in the group with the positive exercise test was larger than that in the group with the negative test. ΔPEP/ET ratio was larger with 75 W load than with 50W load in OMI- and C group, while it was smaller with 75 W load than with 50 W load in AMI group. From these data, it was concluded that the difference after the exercise increased in the group with lower cardiac function by moderate exercise, that the difference tended to be small when the amount of load exceeds the physical work capacity, and, that PEP and PEP/ET ratio correlated well to CI and SI.
Antigenicity of, NKK-105 and its solvent were studied with immunological procedures. Immunopharmacological tests in guinea pigs included active and passive anaphylaxis, passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, reversed passive Arthus reaction and Schultz-Dale reaction. NKK-105 and its solvent showed negative results on their antigenicity compared with positive ones of horse serum. Effect of NKK-105 and its solvent on reticuloendothelial system were studied by means of carbon clearance test. The solvent of NKK-105 showed reticuloendothelial stimulating effect and Zymosan as the reticuloendothelial stimulant showed stronger activity.
In this report, the respiratory and cardiovascular effects of dopamine, especially as a depressant of respiration, were re-examined using anesthetized dogs with respect to current concepts of dopamine as an inhibitory modulator in respiratory control. An intravenous inje-ction of dopamine (1μg/kg) slightly depressed respiration either in tidal volume or in respi-ratory rate. In the range of doses (1-20μg/kg) investigated, the respiratory depression induced by dopamine were transient and dose-dependent accompanied by a biphasic blood pressure change. In the doses above 30μg/kg, the depressed respiration induced by dopamine lasted for several minutes, while the rise in blood pressure was still transient. In the dose of 10 pg/kg, breathing volume and respiratory rate were depressed by dopamine in average to approximately 50% and 21% of control values, respectively. Average and minimum tidal volumes were also reduced to approximately 36% and 45% respectively. The depressed respiration induced by dopamine was not antagonized by pretreatment with phenoxybenzamine or proparnolol, while it was fully counteracted by pretreatment with chlorpromazine in tidal volume, but not antagonized in respiratory rate. The depressed respiration by dopamine can be related to its specific action on dopamine receptors. The mechanism of respiratory depression by dopamine seems to be due mainly to a reflex inhibition of the respiratory center via the carotid chemoreceptor mechanism in which dopamine is involved.
Considering the formation of excessive membrane structures which may induce lowering of physiological activities or subsequent death of affected cells, the elucidation of structure and its forming process of these cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (CIB) will presu-mably contribute to clarify the mechanism of lipid accumulation suppressing the cellular functions. The present report documents the analysis of CIB protein obtained from four patients with Gaucher's disease (adult form) by use of the semi-micro polyacrylamide disc gradient gel, which had been developed by Abe and Ebato. The CIB of Gaucher's disease did not show myelin-like spiral structure as seen in those of Tay-Sachs and Niemman-Pick disease, but an elongated tubular structure. None of the twisted structure repoted by Lee et al. was clearly demonstrated. In all four samples, coomassie blue stain revealed five major bands and five faint bands of high-molecular weight protein. The molecular weights for five major bands were estimated to be 2.7×104, 4.2×104, 5.8×104, 6.4×104 and 8.6×104, respectively, and the maximum molecular weight for the highest-molecular protein bands was 2.1×105 . It is notewarthy to point out that the CIB electropholetic pattern showed an protein band of the same mobility as the tubulin, major part of constitutional elements of micro tubular system, suggesting that tubulin may play an important role for the formation of the CIB in metabolic disorder of lipid. It is interesting that four cases of Gaucher's disease presented identical CIB electrophoretic pattern. This may suggest that the membranous structures are formed in organs and tissues under certain uniformly regulated conditions. There are two possible basic biochemical nodes of CIB formation, that is, protein incorporated to lipid base, or vice versa. The reproducibility and sharpness of the semi-micro polyacrylamid disc gradient gel were proved.
This life expectancy table is based on a survey of 4, 229 (2, 398 males and 1, 831 females) profoundly retarded persons living at home, who were registered with Tokyo Metropolitan Rehabilitation Center for the Physically and Mentally Handicapped during the four-year period 1974 to 1977. Age-specific mortality rates show that the youngest groups of profoundly retareded persons living at home had more than seventy times higher mortality rates in age group 1 to 5 for males and more than hundred times higer in age group 1 to 11 for females, than the same age groups of general population. For a cohort of 100, 000 babies born mentally retarded, the table shows that only about 50 percent of the total population could be expected to reach age 25 for males and 19 for females, whereas in the general Tokyo population about 50 percent could be reached age 77 for males, 81 for females, respectively. The life expectancy at birth for male profoundly retaded persons was 29.50 years and for females 27.06 years, whereas in Tokyo population this was 72.87 and 77.40 years, respectively. The life expectancy at birth of profoundly retaded persons in Tokyo was even shorter than that of the Toyama Prefecture's polpulation in the period 1921 throughout 1925, which was the shortest life expectancy ever experienced in Japan : for males 35.95 years and for females 37.87.
A 70-year-old female patient was admitted to the hospital because of fracture of the right hip. The patient had a history of Parkinson's disease. The patient had been receiving levodopa 0.2 g three times daily. The last dose of levodopa was 72 hours before surgery. Premedication was atropine sulphate 0.4mg given one hour preoperatively. Anesthetic induc-tion was with diazepam-succinylcholine chloride followed by tracheal intubation. Anesthesia was then maintained with N2 0-02 (3 : 1.5 litres) . The patient's cardiovascular status was almost stable during the operation. Postoperative course was uneventful. Levodopa was readministrated 72 hours after the operation. Some anesthetic agents may cause cardiovascular complication. Therefore, careful and sufficient attention must be given if a patient has been treated with levodopa therapy.
We observed 27 cases of loose bodies in a period from 1967 to 1977. These loose bodies classified 3 groups, 12 osteochondritis dissecans, 11 osteochondromatosis and others of 4 cases (unknown of origin, surgicaly and pathologicaly) . They were found in the elbow joint in 11 cases, in the knee joint in 11 cases, in the ankle joint in 4 cases and the MP joint of the 2 nd toe in 1 case. The results of observations are summarized as follows : 1) The patients were eighteen to eighty years of age and forty-three on an average. Osteochondritis dissecans was found in patients of twenty to eighty years (thirty-four on an average) and osteochondromatosis was found in patients of thirty-one to seventy-four (fifty-one on an average) . The sex ratio of the patients with loose bodies was 1.7: 1 as a whole, that is, the diseases were more frequent in males than in females. When the patients were examined by age, osteochondritis dissecans was frequent in men in their thirties and osteochondromatosis was frequent in a little older patients irrespective of sex. 2) In the 27 cases of loose bodies, osteochondritis dissecans and osteochondromatosis were observed mostly to affect the elbow and the knee joint respectively. 3) The relation between the onset of loose bodies and patient's occupation was unknown. 4) Traumas were considered to have some relation to the onset of osteochondritis dissecans. 5) Chief complaints of patients with loose bodies were mostly pain and a limited range of motion, and the pain was pain of motion in most cases.
We had two cases of the rectal carcinoid. Case 1 was the nonreactive carcinoid that neither argyrophil nor argentaffin reaction was positive. Case 2 was positive in both argyrophil and argentaffin reactions, but the main reaction was argentaffin. Cases positive for both argyrophil and argentaffin reactions were very rare, there are only five cases reported in Japan, including our own case.
The author has displayed a cases of 23-year-old male employee who had no particular past history but was affected by the hypertrophic type of idiopathic cardiomyopathy, which was at first revealed by the autopsy at the Tokyo-to Medical Examiner Office. Macroscopically, extreme hypertrophy of the anterior portion of ventricular septum was noticed. Hypertrophied myocardium showed bizzare arrangement of muscle fibers of different sizes and scar formation associated with circumscribed elastosis in the walls of small arteries and artioles.