In this study, we used Electromyogram (EMG) triggered electrical stimulation (ETES) to move unilateral hand synchronously with contralateral voluntary hand movement while performing mirror therapy and investigated the effects on motor evoked potential (MEP) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in healthy subjects. The MEP was recorded from three muscles in the right arm;extensor carpi radialis (ECR), flexor carpi radialis (FCR) and first dorsal interosseous (FDI). The subjects performed 6 tasks as below:observation of a mark with only left hand extension movement (Task1), observation of resting right hand added to Task1 (Task2), observation of mirror reflection of left hand movement added to Task1 (Task3), observation of a mark and right hand movement induced by ETES (Task4), observation of moving right hand added to Task4 (Task5), and observation of mirror reflection of left hand movement added to Task4 (Task6). In ECR, mean amplitude of MEP (AMEP) in Task 4 and Task 6 showed a significant increase comparing to Task 1. In FCR, statistically significant differences were not found. In FDI, the AMEP in Task 2 and Task 5 showed a significant increase comparing to Task 1. These results suggested that ETES combined with mirror therapy had a possibility to activate excitability of the primary motor cortex corresponding to the muscle that was electrically moved.
The objective of this research is to evaluate autonomic nervous function in Holter Electrocardiogram (ECG) using smartphone under the emotional stimuli. Twenty-four healthy subjects were assessed using State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and divided into two groups:high anxiety group and low anxiety group. ECG was measured under emotionally audio-visual stimuli (relax, pleasant, and unpleasant stimuli) and emotional sentence stimuli (pleasant sentence and un-pleasant sentence stimuli) using smartphone. The RR interval from ECG was analyzed for estimating the HF% and LF/HF values. The HF% and LF/HF values among stimuli and between groups were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-test, respectively. The LF/HF values of pleasant, unpleasant, pleasant sentence, and unpleasant sentence stimuli were significantly higher than the value of relax stimuli. The LF/HF value of unpleasant stimuli in low anxiety group was significantly higher than the value in high anxiety group. This research suggests that the autonomic nervous function would be different based on the emotional stimuli and the presence of anxiety.
In recent years, echocardiography is a common tool for diagnosing congenital heart disease because it is non-invasive and it provides real-time imaging. However, it is necessary to have specialized knowledge and experience to analyze the three-dimensional anatomical structure of the heart from 2-D echocardiography. Currently, experts on echocardiography explain the diagnosis of the patient to another medical staff by using two-dimensional schematic illustrations. The sharing of complex information about the diagnosis is time-consuming and difficult. We propose a heart chambers editing interface for three-dimensional modeling of congenital heart diseases. In order to facilitate interactivity, the center-position and radius of the heart chamber are used to edit the shape of the heart chambers (atriums and ventricles). In other words, the heart chambers are expressed in spherical coordinates. We provide a shape-editing interface for modifying the surface of the heart chambers. In addition, we provide a topology-editing interface to connect/disconnect between the heart chambers with each other or the heart chamber and the great vessel. Using our system, we can visualize some types of congenital heart diseases, such as ventricular septal defect, and double-outlet right ventricle. In our preliminary user study, experts verified that the constructed three-dimensional model of our proposed system is useful for representing the relationship and positioning between the heart chambers and the great vessels. Therefore, our developed system enables us to easily and quickly construct a three-dimensional heart model to facilitate the sharing of information on the diseases among medical staff.
This paper describes our attempt to distinguish cancer and normal tissues using fast Fourier transform (FFT) and its differentiation. Pathological diagnosis is mostly performed based on the observation of sectioned sample tissue, which sometimes leads to unsuccessful diagnosis. In this study, we compared and analyzed resected normal and cancer tissues from 26 cases of colorectal cancer at the Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research. Each extracted tissue was divided into two pieces that were compared after processing as follows. One was pathologically diagnosed with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. The other was suspended/liquefied and fluorescently stained for approximately ten minutes with automatic cell isolation equipment and frozen dry reagent. DNA ploidy analysis was performed on the processed tissues with a flow cytometer. Previous studies reported histograms were classified into just diploidy and aneuploidy;unclassified others were not analyzed because they assumed a problem with the measuring equipment, the cell isolation method or the samples themselves. The current study discusses histogram analysis including what were excluded in previous studies. We classified the previously unclassified histograms based on their characteristics. We also developed an algorithm which uses the minimum value of differentiated FFT patterns and the frequency of oscillation for amplitudes which exceed a set value. The result of discrimination by this new algorithm, with reference to the result of pathological diagnosis, showed 100% sensitivity and around 90% specificity. In addition, we identified debris in the tube in HE stained tissue of which other half showed abundant debris in its histogram. The cases showing no diploidy in normal tissues had reduced specificity. These results suggest that our newly developed DNA ploidy and FFT analysis may be an efficacious diagnosis method.
The purpose of this study is to develop a haptic display to represent touch sense by engineering approach in different conventional ways. With this purpose, two directions were featured as follows;(1) a physiology approach to analyze the mechanism of haptic perception and (2) an engineering approach to produce the device with reasonable electric devices. In the physiology approach, the theory of Touch Blend (including the Touch Pyramid proposed by E. B. Titchener) was examined. In the engineering approach, our proposed display with a new Touch Pyramid was consisted of the peltier device, the pressure sensor, and the DC vibration motor on the basis of the pyramid. An evaluation experiment was carried out on 30 subjects of early 20s. They were ordered to put their fingertip on the device. As results, 80 percent of volunteers perceived particular haptic sense (e. g. itch and prick) by synthesizing vibration and warmth. And, 77 percent of volunteers perceived particular haptic sense (e. g. numb) by synthesizing vibration and coldness. From these results, the device using the new method was able to display the blended haptic senses, which were evoked by the physically independent stimuli.
In recent years, a lot of research has been carried out on the use of a ventricular assist device (VAD) in pediatrics. However, all VADs need a driveline, which penetrates through the skin. Consequently, patients are exposed to the risk of infectious diseases due to the percutaneous driveline. Therefore, a transcutaneous energy transmission (TET) device that wirelessly transmits energy from the outside to the inside of the body is required. Conventional TET transformers are too large (diameter:60 mm) for use with pediatric patients. Therefore, we design a miniature transcutaneous transformer that can be used with a pediatric body. And we analyzed the specific absorption rate (SAR) and internal electric field values of biological tissue surrounding an implanted air-core transcutaneous transformer. Our results show that energy transmission efficiency of more than 96% (output power 5W) and 90% (output power 10W) can be achieved. The secondary coil of our transformer was miniaturized by about 66% compared to a conventional secondary coil. The maximum SAR values of output power of 5W and 10W are 1.8W/kg and 0.95W/kg respectively. The internal electric field values of output power of 5W and 10W are 101 V/m and 71 V/m respectively. The SAR and electric field values are below the limiting values prescribed in the ICNIRP guideline.
Sitting training aimed at early mobilization is very important. The training approaches involve gradually lifting up the head of the bed or making the patient directly rise from a recumbent position to a sitting position on the bed. Although it is important to monitor the patient's circulatory dynamics during training, only local monitoring has been used for this purpose to date and circulatory dynamics have not been sufficiently assessed. Hence, for this study, we constructed a non-invasive continuous-measurement system for monitoring circulatory dynamics. This system continuously monitors blood pressure by using the volume-compensation method and measures cardiac output with electrical admittance cardiography. As a case study, we assessed the circulatory dynamics of 6 individuals who underwent sitting training:4 healthy adult participants (mean age, 26.0±2.9 years) and 2 patients with cerebrovascular disorders (ages:86 and 60 years, respectively). The results showed that the patients with cerebrovascular disorders had increased blood pressure and cardiac output, while some of the patients conversely showed decreased blood pressure and cardiac output, indicating that the circulatory dynamics response during training varies with individuals. Thus, this system could be useful for assessing circulatory dynamics during sitting training and determining appropriate therapeutic approach.
Recent years, a NIR Fluorescence Biomedical Imaging (FBI) is attracting attention. Wavelength range between 900 and 2500 nm is that where optical losses by scattering and infrared absorption diminish in biological objects. By using NIR for endoscope, it is possible to observe arteries and veins under the skin and indicate blood constitutes of in the brain. If an endoscope makes use of NIR, it is possible to observe of in vivo deeply and lead to early discovery of cancer and so on. Furthermore, NIR has high penetrating as compared with thickness of alimentary canal, the NIR endoscope can observe of kidney and liver from alimentary canal. However an existed endoscope using Si-CCD camera cannot capture over 1000 nm (OTN) wavelength. In this paper, we propose the head-scanning mechanism for a NIR endoscope which is able to capture OTN wavelength. The head-scanning mechanism mainly consists of a photodetector and a 2-D Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) mirror. NIR laser is irradiated and scanned 2-D surface in vivo deeply by the 2-D MEMS mirror. The reflection light is captured by the photodetector. Image scanning experiments on different wavelength were conducted by using the proposed head-scanning mechanism. And we examined to scan fluorescence which emits OTN light by RED-CNP. The experimental results suggest that the proposed method is able to capture OTN-NIR image and is useful for observe of in vivo deeply.
Cryosurgery is a treatment for cancer which destructs cells by freezing. In cryosurgery, cells are injured not only by freezing but also by vascular stasis. The vascular stasis caused by thrombosis necrotizes the surrounding non-targeted cells due to the lack of oxygen and nourishment. Inhibition of thrombus formation, the former phase of the vascular stasis, is required to prevent damaging normal cells around a tumor. By analysis of thrombus formation under low temperature, the temperature controlling method can be developed to form less thrombus. Foregoing studies simulate platelet aggregation based on distance between platelets. However, in cryosurgery, temperature dependency of blood-clotting factors' activity is required to be considered. The authors constructed a model consisting of vascular and extravascular tissues. The temperature distribution near the ice probe and vessel is simulated by using the finite difference method solving the energy equation. The cell necrosis areas were estimated by considering the freezing rate of water in the vascular endothelial cells. We also constructed a model considering the temperature dependency of bonding probability and simulated platelet aggregation to cell necrosis areas. The bonding between platelets is represented as a spring and a damper. The simulation with varied temperature around destructed area showed that platelet aggregation depending on temperature. By comparing simulation result with experimental data, it is suggested that the proposed model can represent thrombus formation.
The frictional force between a fingertip and a flat surface of an object is not stable and changes each time. We measured the frictional force through rubbing on the surface of acryl plate by fingertip of forefinger of three men and eight women in life environment and reconfirmed that the frictional forces were not stable. Ten of eleven subjects succeeded to evaluate the difficulty to move the finger rubbing on the surface of the plate using a subjective rating scale method in five degrees. A subjective score revealed that the perceived interference was correlated to the magnitude of the frictional force between the finger and the surface. We recognized the sweat on the fingertip according to correlated value of the maximum coefficient of friction in the ten subjects though the sweat on the fingertip was not confirmed visually.
Head-care (including scalp wash and hair wash) is conducted at many hospital, care facility, barber shop and beauty salon to propose not only cleanness but also relaxation to the users. However, the burden on head-care practitioner is great such as back pain and rough hands. So, we have been developing a head-care robot. Head-care robot is composed of three robot arm and totally twenty four fingers. Head-care robot not only washes the user's head and hair but also realizes high comfort by massaging the scalp. The purpose of this article is to measure the change of the scalp blood flow before and after using head-care robot to confirm its massaging function. Ten healthy participants use the head-care robot for fifteen minutes. As a result, the scalp blood flow of top and side head shortly after head-care is about 20% improved by comparing with that before head-care. In addition, the use's opinions show the possibility to improve not only scalp blood flow but also whole body blood flow.
This paper proposes a new method for evaluating brain damage using heart beat information. In previous research, it becomes possible to judge the brain damage by comparing the heart beat interval data before and after hypoxia. In this study, we used a newborn rat model of the HIE (Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy), and investigated whether there is any significant relationship between brain damage and heart beat interval information during hypoxic period without using a complex estimator and classifier. This paper used the correlation coefficient and the inclination calculated by the relationship between the coefficient variation and the local variation obtained from heart beat interval data as elements of the estimation of the brain damage. We determined the brain damage using the information of the result classified by the fuzzy clustering method of the correlation coefficient and inclination. From the experimental results, our proposed method indicates that the estimate of the presence or absence of the brain damage is possible without using a complex classifier and estimator.