In a previous study, we found that once weekly high-intensity interval training (HIIT) for 8-12 weeks in normal healthy subjects increased maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) by 6-13% and prolonged maximal exercise duration by 33-89%during high-intensity exercise. Moreover, the effects of HIIT were reported to be more pronounced and specific during more high-intensity exercise at 90%maximum work rate (WRmax) and maximal exercise than during high-intensity exercise at 80% WRmax. However, it is unclear whether comparable effects are observed in athletes who perform intense exercise on a daily basis. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of once weekly HIIT on cardiorespiratory function and exercise performance during maximal and submaximal exercises in college athletes. Seven male college student athletes participated in the study. Cardiorespiratory function was investigated by an incremental maximal exercise test and two constant step exercise tests, before and after the HIIT program. For HIIT, the subjects performed cycle ergometer training once a week for 2 months. The training consisted of three bouts of exercises at 90%maximum work rate to volitional fatigue. Significant increases in VO2max (+12%, p=0.003) and maximal work rate (+16%, p<0.001) during the ramp exercise test were observed after HIIT. Maximal time to volitional fatigue during high intensity step exercise test was also significantly prolonged after HIIT (+72%, p=0.01) . Heart rates during exercise at both intensities were reduced significantly after HIIT compared to before HIIT, but oxygen uptake and minute ventilation measured over the same time interval did not change during high-intensity exercise. Regardless of the individual difference in initial VO2max among subjects, the same improvement in VO2max was obtained after HIIT, and the rate of increase in maximal exercise duration correlated with the rate of increase in VO2max (γ=0.904, p=0.005) . In conclusion, short-duration once weekly HIIT improves cardiorespiratory function and exercise performance during maximal exercise in athletes, and the effects are more pronounced and specific during exercise at higher intensities. These findings will contribute to the development of new and optimal exercise programs for various age groups and physical conditions, including competitive athletes.
Optical measurement techniques have many features suitable for biomedical applications. This review paper summarizes the fundamental principles and techniques of optical measurement with a focus on biomedical applications. First, the physical properties and parameters of light are presented. Next, the basic elements of optical measurement, such as units, light sources, photodetectors, image sensors, lenses, optical fibers, integrating spheres, and lock-in amplifiers, are described. Then, the basic techniques of optical measurement, such as spectroscopy, optical interferometry, time-resolved measurement, and scattering measurement, are explained. Examples of applied optical measurement are introduced as laboratory test instruments, pulse oximeters, optical fiber sensors, structural imaging, and functional imaging.
Already 50 years have past since the principle of MRI has been proposed. MRI has become the necessary clinical diagnostic tool such as X-CT. MRI techniques have been still in further progress. In this manuscript, the historical review of NMR and MRI were introduced, and the fundamental principle of NMR phenomena such as the principle of magnetic resonance, relaxation process and NMR information were introduced to understand MRI techniques. Following these introduction, fundamental MR imaging techniques such as 2-D Fourier Transform in relation to MR imaging, parameters of image construction, the role of gradient field, contrast enhanced images and fast MR imaging techniques were introduced.