Frankia is a representative genus of nitrogen-fixing (N2-fixing) actinobacteria; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying various phenomena such as the differentiation of a N2 fixation-specific structure (vesicle) and the regulation of N2 fixation (nif) genes, have yet to be elucidated in detail. In the present study, we screened hyphal fragments of Frankia casuarinae that were mutagenized by 1-methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine or gamma rays, and isolated 49 candidate N2 fixation mutants. Twelve of these mutants were selected for further study, and their abilities to grow in NH3-deficient (N-) liquid media and their rates of acetylene reduction activities were evaluated. Eleven mutant strains were confirmed to lack the ability to fix N2. Five mutant strains formed significantly reduced numbers of vesicles, while some failed to form large mature vesicles. These vesicle mutants also exhibited an aberrant hyphal morphology, suggesting a relationship between vesicle differentiation and hyphal branching. Ten mutants showed significant reductions in the expression of nifE, nifH, andnifV genes under N- conditions. The genome sequencing of eight mutants identified 20 to 400 mutations. Although mutant strains N3H4 and N6F4 shared a large number of mutations (108), most were unique to each strain. Mutant strain N7C9 had 3 mutations in the nifD and nifH genes that may result in the inability to fix N2. The other mutant strains did not have any mutations in any known N2 fixation-related genes, indicating that they are novel N2 fixation mutants.
The ecosystem of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract traverses a number of environmental, chemical, and physical conditions because it runs from the oral cavity to the anus. These differences in conditions along with food or other ingested substrates affect the composition and density of the microbiota as well as their functional roles by selecting those that are the most suitable for that environment. Previous studies have mostly focused on Bacteria, with the number of studies conducted on Archaea, Eukarya, and Viruses being limited despite their important roles in this ecosystem. Furthermore, due to the challenges associated with collecting samples directly from the inside of humans, many studies are still exploratory, with a primary focus on the composition of microbiomes. Thus, mechanistic studies to investigate functions are conducted using animal models. However, differences in physiology and microbiomes need to be clarified in order to aid in the translation of animal model findings into the context of humans. This review will highlight Bacteria, Archaea, Fungi, and Viruses, discuss differences along the GI tract of healthy humans, and perform comparisons with three common animal models: rats, mice, and pigs.
Archaeal communities in mineral soils were compared between a boreal forest in Finland and cold-temperate forest in Japan using 16S rRNA gene-targeted high-throughput sequencing. In boreal soils, Thaumarchaeota Group 1.1c archaea predominated and Thaumarchaeota Group 1.1a-associated and Group 1.1b archaea were also detected. In temperate soils, Thaumarchaeota Group 1.1a-associated and Group 1.1b archaea were dominant members at the subsurface, whereas their dominancy was replaced by Thermoplasmata archaea at the subsoil. An analysis of the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A gene of Archaea also indicated the distribution of Thaumarchaeota Group 1.1a-associated and Group 1.1b archaea in these soils.
When soil oxygen levels decrease, some bradyrhizobia use denitrification as an alternative form of respiration. Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens (nos+) completely denitrifies nitrate (NO3–) to dinitrogen, whereas B. japonicum (nos–) is unable to reduce nitrous oxide to dinitrogen. We found that anaerobic growth with NO3– as the electron acceptor was significantly lower in B. japonicum than in B. diazoefficiens, and this was not explained by the absence of nos in B. japonicum. Our results indicate that the reason for the limited growth of B. japonicum is weak NO3– reduction due to impaired periplasmic nitrate reductase activity, which may rely on posttranscriptional events.
Geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) outbreaks in tropical water bodies, such as Southeast Asia, by actinomycetes have not yet been elucidated in detail. Six Streptomyces isolates from lowland environments in Malaysia were selected and evaluated for their odor production under different temperatures. The gene responsible for the production of geosmin, geoA, was detected in all isolates, while only two isolates harbored tpc, which is responsible for 2-MIB production. This result suggested that geosmin and 2-MIB synthesis pathway genes already existed in the environment in the Tropics of Southeast Asia. Furthermore, our isolates produced musty odor compounds at 30°C, and differences were observed in musty odor production between various temperatures. This result indicated the potential for odor episodes in water bodies of the tropical countries of Southeast Asia throughout the year due to the mean annual ambient temperature of 27°C in the lowlands.
We isolated Enterococcus species that colonized in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in order to investigate their genetic relatedness and antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 219 isolates were obtained and a 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed they were classified into Enterococcus avium, E. casseliflavus, E. faecalis, E. faecium, E. hirae, or E. mundtii. Multilocus sequence typing of E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates indicated that some of the isolates showed an evolutionary distance that was far from the primary founders. The antimicrobial susceptibility of the enterococcal isolates suggested that the significant transmission of antimicrobial resistance via human intervention had not yet occurred.
The aim of the present study was to identify major bacteria associated with the swim bladder in the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. We extracted DNA from the swim bladder and gut contents in order to perform a temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) analysis of 16S rRNA amplicons for bacterial identification to further compare both profiles. Arthrobacter and Cellulosimicrobium were the major genera observed in the swim bladder in fish, but were not present in fish gut contents; Mycoplasma were instead observed in these samples. Further research to investigate the possible symbiotic roles of the swim bladder-associated microbiota in salmonids is needed.
Edited and published by : Japanese Society of Microbial Ecology / The Japanese Society of Soil Microbiology / Taiwan Society of Microbial Ecology / Japanese Society of Plant and Microbe Interactions Produced and listed by : Nakanishi Printing Co., Ltd.