The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the β3-adrenoceptor (AR) agonist ritobegron on rat bladder function following partial bladder outlet obstruction and on rat salivary secretion. In addition, the effects of ritobegron were compared with those of the anti-muscarinic agent tolterodine. After a 6-week partial bladder outlet obstruction (BOO), drug effects on bladder functions were evaluated using cystometrography. Effects on carbachol (CCh)-induced salivary secretion were evaluated in urethane-anesthetized rats. Ritobegron significantly decreased the frequency of non-voiding contractions (NVC), while both ritobegron and tolterodine each significantly decreased the amplitude of NVC. Ritobegron had no effect on either the micturition pressure (MP) or the residual volume (RV). In contrast, tolterodine dose-dependently decreased MP and increased RV. Ritobegron had no effect on CCh-induced salivary secretion, whereas tolterodine dose-dependently decreased it. Ritobegron decreased both the frequency and amplitude of NVC, which is similar to its effect on the contractions associated with detrusor overactivity (DO) in patients with an overactive bladder (OAB), without affecting MP, RV, or CCh-induced salivary secretion. Although tolterodine reduced the amplitude of NVC, it also markedly increased RV and significantly inhibited CCh-induced salivary secretion. These results suggest that use of ritobegron, a β3-AR agonist, is unlikely to lead to the residual urine and dry mouth symptoms that are associated with anti-muscarinic drugs, and that ritobegron may hold promise as a safe and effective agent for OAB treatment.
Background: Data on acid and non-acid reflux patterns and esophageal function in Japanese patients with non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) are limited. The aim of this study was to use combined multichannel intraluminal impedance pH monitoring (MII-pH) and high-resolution manometry (HRM) to investigate the characteristics of Japanese patients who were treated with a “double-dose” (20 mg) of rabeprazol (a proton-pump inhibitor; PPI) for persistent symptoms of NERD. Methods: Twenty-five patients who complained of typical gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms, which had occurred more than twice a week despite treatment with rabeprazol, were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent upper endoscopy, esophageal HRM, and 24-h MII-pH monitoring while double-dose PPI therapy was continued. Results: Twelve (48.0%) of the patients had a positive symptom index (SI) with 234 recorded symptoms, 127 (54.3%) of which were related to reflux episodes. Of those with reflux episodes, 29 (22.8%) were related to acid reflux, while 98 (77.2%) were the result of a weaker acidic reflux. In acid reflux and in mixed (liquid-gas) reflux, the proximal esophageal region was involved to a significantly greater degree (P<0.002 and P=0.005, respectively) than the distal region. In liquid reflux, there was no difference between the distal and proximal regions. HRM showed that proximal motility parameters were significantly more defective than in those of healthy volunteers. Conclusions: MII-pH monitoring indicated that weakly acidic reflux and mixed refluxate in the proximal esophagus is the major cause of persistent symptoms in patients with NERD who are being treated with PPI. HRM showed that proximal esophageal dysfunction might be a key condition that facilitates reflux.
CD3 is a complex of polypeptides which form part of the T cell receptor. Normal human peripheral pan T cells, express not only CD3, but the mRNA for myosin regulatory light chains MYL9, MYL12A, and MYL12B are also significantly expressed. In the Jurkat wild strain, an acute T cell leukemia cell line, CD3 on the surface and MYL9 mRNA are not expressed, while both MYL12A mRNA and MYL12B mRNA are expressed. Jurkat-I, a new clone was established by the transfection of the MYL9 gene into the Jurkat wild strain. As a result, the level of CD3 expressed on the surface of Jurkat-I cells was significantly higher than those in the Jurkat wild strain. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate increased the surface CD3 levels in Jurkat wild strain cells without resulting in MYL9 gene expression, indicating that protein kinase C is partially involved in the expression of CD3 on the surface. These results suggest that surface CD3 expression proceeds through both MYL9-dependent and MYL9-independent pathways (i.e. the protein kinase C- dependent pathway) in Jurkat cells.