The most important factors for maintaining and promoting health are known to be nutrition, exercise and rest. Although there have been many studies on nutrition and immunity, or exercise and immunity, few studies have concomitantly investigated the effects of both nutrition and exercise on host immune functions. Since aging also has great effects on host immune functions, especially cellular immunity, this review covers the effects of nutrition and exercise not only on host immune functions but also the decrease of cellular immune functions in the aged. Animal models of aging have shown that vitamin E (VE) has an ability to restore cellular immune functions that have deteriorated with aging. Furthermore, VE also plays an important role in T-cell differentiation and maturation in the thymus. It has been demonstrated that a bout of treadmill exercise causes a transient decrease of cellular immune function immediately after exercise, which is thought to be related to changes in plasma prostaglandin E2, Iactate and glutamine concentrations. On the other hand, exercise training has been shown to have beneficial effects, both qualitatively and functionally, on celluiar immunity in the aged. From these results, it should be emphasized that appropriate nutrition and exercise training are beneficial for maintaining and promoting health in the aged.
The Gidra-speaking people of lowland Papua New Guinea basically subsist on local foods by exploitation of sago, slash-and-burn horticulture, hunting, fishing, and gathering. To evaluate the trace element nutrition of the Gidra, trace element intakes were calculated, and the concentrations of trace elements in hair and serum were measured in four villages. The composition of the foods consumed in these villages differed according to their ecological conditions such as environmental availability, subsistence technology and purchasing ability. Accordingly, intake levels and hair and serum concentrations of trace elements differed among the villages. In comparison with developed countries, a conspicuous characteristic of trace element levels in hair and serum of the Gidra was lower zinc concentrations. On the other hand, although the pattern of trace element intake by the Gidra differed from that of developed countries, the level of zinc intake was not sufficiently low to explain the low hair and serum zinc levels. These contradictory results are attributable to the high intake of crude fiber and iron, which are known to inhibit zinc absorption.
Male greenhouse farmers engaged in strawberry growing in a town near Kumamoto city were studied during the harvest and post-harvest seasons from 1985 to 1988. Dividing the subjects into two age-groups of 10 elderly (over 56) and 15 middle-aged (less than 55) individuals, relationships among age, physical characteristics, work load and food consumption were examined to clarify possible overloads on the elderly. Compared with the middle-aged group, the elderly group showed low values of body weight, percentage body fat and Body Mass Index (BMI). Householdor per capita cultivation area was also lower in the elderly group than in the middle-aged group. However, daily energy expenditure estimated by 24-h heart-rate monitoring did not differ in the harvest-season, being about 2, 700 kcal per day in the two groups. In the elderly, daily energy intake was lower than energy expenditure in the harvest season. Intakes of calcium, and vitamins B1 and B2 did not meet the daily requirements, although intake was balanced with requirement for iron, and vitamins A and C. The food consumption pattern in the middle-aged group was similar to that in the elderly group, with higher values for all nutrients. Accordingly, the rate of intake relative to requirement was inversely correlated with age for most of the nutrients. It is suggested that food consumption in the busy harvest season is independent of work load and controlled by socioeconomic factors such as the number of household members and work schedule.
Globulin proteins were isolated from a 0.5M NaCl extract of tartary buckwheat, then separated by column chromatography on Sephacryl S-300 and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results Showed that the tartary buckwheat globulins contained two kinds of globulin, with molecular weights of 679, 000 and 443, 000, respectively. Quantitatively, the latter was the major tartary buckwheat globulin. This major globulin had several bands on SDS-PAGE, which appeared as a single peak with a molecular weight of 178, 600 on gel filtration with 6M guanidine hydrochoride. These results provide evidence that the major globulin from tartary buckwheat is composed of two or three polypeptides, each with a molecular weight 178, 600, and linked with hydrogen bonds.