A nutritional and dietary study through a year has been conducted on eight children of two to four years of age, in relation to their health, growth, and dietaryhi story. There have been observed little definite relations between height and weight of the children and those of their parents, between the number of the decayed teeth of the children and that of their parents, and between height and weight of the children and the dietary habits of their mothers during pregnancy. The correlation level between the present height and weight of the children and those at their time of birth has been around γ=0.7. It might be neccessary to accumulate more cases than those of the present study for the confidential evaluation of the relation between the feeding method of the first year of their life and the present status of health and growth of the children.
The present studies were made to elucidate whether the enzymic formation of inosinic acid from various raw materials was possible. 1. The preparation of crystalline Ba-inosinate was attempted from whale or rabbit muscle by the Astern's method, and pure Na-salts were prepared by ion-exchange chromatography. 2. Concerning with the investigation on the natural sources for the inosinic acid formation, it was confirmed that adenine, hypoxanthine, guanine, xanthine, uracil, and thymine were widely distributed in biological materials. 3. Finally, the enzymic formation of nucleosides and nucleotides was carefully tested with animal tissue homogenate, and the formation of inosine and inosinic acid from hypoxanthine and D-ribose was realized with paper chromatography using rat-liver or shellfish homogenate.
Blood urea content of rabbits remarkably decreased within 24 hours when more than 250g of sweet potatoes were fed. At the same time, urea and total N content in urine also considerably decreased. No significant changes, however, were observed when potatoes were fed. Various experiments were made considering the balance of sugars and protein in substances of sweet potatoes and potatoes. Besides the differences of nutritive balance, some factors which inhibit urea formation are supposed to exist in sweet potatoes.
In rabbits, the electric stimulation of the b-sympathetic region (after Kurotsu) caused an increase of urinary nitrogen excretion by 18%, and the stimulation applied to the c-parasympathetic region (do) caused a still more increase, reaching as high as 40%.
The nutritional effect of the addition of L-lysine, DL-threonine, DL-tryptophan, and DL-methionine to polished rice was examined on rats fed on polished rice powder (protein content 5-6%) or on that added with protein extract from rice (protein content 18%) as the single protein source. The results of the experiments were summarized as follows.(1) The activity of the xanthine oxidase of the liver of rats fed on polished rice powder added with these amino acids increased in company with the growth of rats. The nutritional value was estimated to be almost equal to casein, and these observations indicated that the addition of these amino acids to polished rice powder offered a complete protein nutrition.(2) When the rice protein content was 18% of the total food, no significant difference was found in the growth of rats and the activity of xanthine oxidase between the group of rats fed on rice protein added with these amino acids and the group fed on diet without the additions.
It has been well known that the anemia readily appears in protein deficiency and that the grade of anemia is roughly proportionate to the grade of protein-deficiency. From studies in the author's laboratory, the acceleration of the erythrocyte destruction during protein deficiency was supposed to be a possible reason for this anemia. In order to ascertain the mechanism of anemia due to protein-deficiency the author performed a long-term experiment of low protein intake with human subjects and examined morphologically and biochemically the time-course of changes in the erythrocytes. Two weeks after the start of the low-protein diet (0.53-0.78 gram/kg/day protein) following a certain period of the standard diet (1.34-1.35 gram/kg/day protein), the anemic symptoms made their appearance; the number of erythrocytes, hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit were all decreased. Calculated from these measurements, color index and volume index were also decreased; in the 4th-5th week of the low-protein diet these values became the lowest, followed by an ascent towards recovery. Around this time the phase microscopic figure of the erythrocyte showed an increased thickness, and more or less “globular” form. Parenthetically, in 3rd-4th week of the low-protein diet, the mean corpuscular diameter became smaller and so became the osmotic resistance. As for the enzyme activity of the adenosine phosphate system which is possibly related to the energy metabolism of the erythrocyte, the activity was reduced during this period of the low protein regimen. These observations suggest that the erythrocyte, like other organs such as the liver, has its enzyme activity reduced due to the reduced protein metabolism in protein deficiency.The reduction in the activity of ATP in erythrocyte presumably provokes the decrease of the enegry metabalism in erythrocyte membrane, which is closely related with the resistance, and consequently the maintenance of the shape of the erythrocyte. This may be the mechanism why the resistance of the erythrocyte cellwall is reduced in protein deficiency. The acceleration of the destruction of erythrocytes may follow this reduction of membrane resistance, thus leading anemia. As the material of regeneration of erythrocyte is also decreased due to protein deficiency, the restoration of anemia is retarded, thus a long continued anemia exists in protein deficiency.