A number of amino-acids and amines were detected and identified by the paperchromatography and the paper-electrophoresis in each neutral, acidic, strong basic and weak basic fraction obtained from the water extract of fresh and putrefied Armillaria Matisutake mushrooms. The results showed that, especially at the early stage of putrefaction, the disappearances of phenylalanine and histidine were accompanied by the appearances of phenylethyl-amine and histamine, in consequence of the decarboxylation.
The putrefaction of boiled rice was caused chiefly by the heat resistant spores of bacteria on the inner surface of cooking pot.Putrefactive bacteria which remained from washing out of the pot continued their multiplication and spore formation till the next cooking hour on the fine rice debris which likewise escaped washing out. Theh eat resistant spores were dispersed into cooking water at the time of cooking, and assoon as the temperature of the boiled rice became suitable to them, they would germi-nate and multiply, causing a rapid spoilage of the cooked rice.
Further studies were carried out on the fractions obtained from the aqueous extracts of green-tea which showed a stronger thiamine decomposing action than tannin and flavonoids. Since the fraction obtained was still active for this action even after being ashed, the inorganic components therein were fractionated with ion exchange resins. A strong decomposing action was demonstrated in the anionic fraction, and this w as supposed to be attributable to iodide, iodate and nitrite in the extract. Fluoride, present moderately high in amount in the anion fraction, showed slight influence on the reaction. A part of thiamine which was assumed to be decomposed by these anions were found to be present as the form of thiamine disulfide.
Previously, it was reported that the growth of lactic acid bacteria growing in milk was accelerated by an addition of chlorella into it. Although the chlorella is an important food protein source, the utilization of the other components in it may have also a significance. The authors studied on the natures of the growth stimulating factors in chlorella. The factors readily extractableby diluted acids stimulated the growth of lactic acid bacteria growing in milk, butthey did not accele rate the growth in synthetic medium. This lead the authors to suppose that the growth stimulating factors contained in chlorella extracts could be replaced by a suitable mixture of such well-known growth factors as peptides, trace amounts of metals, bases and vitamins, which were inevitable components of synthetic medium. Moreover, the authors discovered that the tolura yeast also had a similar effectf or growth of lactic acid bacteria in milk, and its available factors were readily extractable by water or diluted acids, although their compositions were different from the chlorella extracts in amounts of trace metals.
The experiment on rats was proceeded to estimate the nutritional value of pro-cessed defatted soybeans, ammonium caseinate, and sodium caseinate. Parched beanfl our and casein (by the Japan Pharmacopeia) were used as the control. Nutritional value was estimated by the gain in body and liver weight, the nitrogen and fat contents of liver, and xanthine oxidase activity in it. As a result of the experiment, processed soybeans, both heated and unheated (fresh), had low nutritional values, and unheated processed soybeans gave a large intestine swelling by the generating gas in the intestines. This was improved by adding amino acids lacked in processed soybeans. However, the nutritional value of the rice protein was not improved by the supplement of processed soybeans. As to the processed casein, the nutritional values of ammonium caseinate and sodium caseinate were almost the same, and casein in general had a higher nutritional value than the processed one.
To examine the influence of lysine imbalance on urinary excretion of lysine metabolites and liver xanthine oxidase activity in young rats, lysine imbalance in rats was observed by 8% casein diet supplemented with 1 2, 3 or 4% L-lysine hydrochloride. During the feeding for 14 days, whole urine of each rat was collected daily, and at theend of the feeding, the blood serum and liver were taken for the analysis. The growth of rats and efficiency of feed utilization were significantly increased by the addition of 10% lysine, while the more addition of it gradually decreased the growth rate and liver xanthine oxidase activity. The amount of urinary excretion of lysine, α-aminoadipic acid and glutamic acid were gradually increased in proportion to the supplemented lysine, and it was suggestedthat the urinary α-aminoadipic acid, an unusual amino acid in normal urine, was a criterion to the grade of development of lysine imbalance.
In the previous paper it was noted that the difference of the ratio of thiamine decomposed during heating was connected with the changes of pH, although it was not necessarily regarded as a primary factor. In the present experiment, the effects of metal ions and chlorine, including copper and iron, usually coming into cooked foods from cooking vessels, were examined, since these were thought to affect seriously on the destruction of thiamine. It was found that the amount of thiamine decomposed during heating was much correlated with the amounts of these metal ions eluted and further that the decomposed products were physiologically inactive.
The gibberellic acid applied to intact higher plants has been known to induce a marked stern elongation and a leaf expansion with further changes in several tissue components. For herbage crops, however, there is only a few informations on the significant changes of nutrients. In the experiment, gibberellic acid solution of concentration of 50 ppm was sprayed twice to intact Japanese honeywort which had a relatively high content of ascorbic acid. The assay was made for some nutrients in both the applied and not applied crops. As a measure of the ascorbic acid oxidase activity, oxygen uptake was determined by using L-ascorbic acid as substrate. It was found that gibberellic acid promoted the growth of Japanese honeywort and increased the contents of ascorbic acid, total phosphorus, in spite of the decrease in the dry matter amount and in the crude ash content of the fresh tissue.
Proteins isolated from polished glutinous rice, polished non-glutinous rice and from rice embryo of the latter were compared in their amino acid compositions. Most of the amino acids were estimated by Moore and Stein's column chromatography. Tryptophan was determined by a modified Spies' method. Total S was determined by micro Carius method, and cystine by hydrazinolysis method of Akabori et al. M ethionine S was calculated from the difference of total and cystine S. The results were tabulated, where the protein scores computed were 77 in non-glutinous rice, 70 in glutinous rice and 93 in the embryo.The first limiting amino acid was not tryptophan but was S amino acids.
By an addition of lipase in the preparation of flour dough, the dough decreased its hardness and elasticity, and the gluten prepared from this dough was remarkably extensible and soft. In chemical analysis of the gluten, it was proved that the ratio of lipid and protein was not influenced by the lipase addition, but the glutenin content in the treated gluten was distinctly smaller. As for the protein composition of the dough with lipase addition, the contents of 70% EtOH-soluble N, probably gliadin, and 5% K2SO4-soluble N were both, increased, while glutenin content was decreased. It was suggested that a part of glutenin in gluten changed into gliadin by the addition of lipase in the dough.