Fluctuations in the selections of starch, olive oil, casein, cod-liver oil and dry yeast under long term emotiond stress elicited by buzzer and shock was discussed. Experiment was carried out for 30 days in 6 periods of 5 days each. Group 3 was presented stress, Group 2 was set in the stress-apparatus but with no Stimulas, and Group 1 was free from them. Marked fluctuations were observed in the selections of casein and starch of Group 3 animals during and after the stress period. The increase of casein selection reached almost twice, and the decrease of starch selection reached 2/5 of selection in period 2.
Self-selections of NaCl, NaH2PO4, K2HPO4, calcium-lactate, MgSO4 and ferric-citrate in the albino rats under long term emotional stress elicited by buzzer and shock were discussed. Aqueous solutions were used for the selection. NaCl selection was the largest among salts in all groups, and the individual variations were also. But there were no differences among 3 groups as to selections and periodical fluctuations as well as NaH2PO4, MgSO4 and ferric-citrate selections. Selections of K2HPO4 and calciumlactate of Group 3 animals fluctuated markedly during the stress period. Decrease of K2HPO4 selection during stress reached under 1/3 of selection in the period prior to stress and recovered to 2/3 after the stress. Increase of calcium-lactate selection during stress reached almost 2. 4 times and recovered rapidly after the stress was removed.
The common scarcity of vegetables, especially of leafy ones in winter season makes it important to investigate the convenient sources of vitamin A and C during this season. The growing of the leafy vegetable Nozawa-na (a variety of Brassica Rapa LINN.) is practiced in the central mountaineous region of Japan in autumn, and then they are salted down for use during the non-growing winter season. There are two kinds of salted Nozawa-na, that of light brine for winter use, and heavier one for later use. In order to estimate the food value as sources of vitamin A and C, these salted Nozawa-na were compared on their nutrient contents. In results, it was recognized that a great portion of vitamin C in two types of salted Nozawa-na was transformed to dehydro-ascorbic acid and other oxidized products, and the average of provitamin A content was 2, 760 I. U. for total carotene and 830 I. U. for β-carotene in 100 g.
Butter, salad oil, margarine, powder oil and lard were given to eight healthy weanling infants as additives to the solid diet to see whether these fats were acceptable to them and utilizable being absorbed through the digestive tracts with no ill effects on the bowel movement. The amounts of each fat added to the solid diet during each of the early, middle, and late weaning periods in grams per day were 1, 3-7 and 10-21, respectively, which occupied 3, 11-15 and 24-42% of the total fat given to the infants. The experimental period for each of the fats was 10 consecutive days and from the seventh day the feces were collected for 72 hours for the fat determination. All these fats were well accepted by the infants with no ill effects like diarrhea, the increase of passages nor the retardation of weight growth apparently ascribable to the fats. The fat absorption amounted to 23-34 grams a day showing 93-98% absorption rates. There was a slight tendency that the higher the acid value of the fat, the higher the absorption rate, but it seemed that the difference in melting point, iodine number, and saponification value of the fats exerted no influences on the absorption rate of fats. It was concluded that there was neither appreciable difference in the absorption among butter, salad oil, margarine, powder oil, and lard, nor ill effects observed on the weight gain, the stool nature of the infants when these fats and oils were fed as additives to the solid diet for the weanling infants.
In order to improve the tastiness and tenderness of raw beef in the cooking of tough round steak, the effects of various proteolytic enzymes on meat were investigated. In the formation of tastiness and tenderness, the protease of Rhizopus genus mold was found to be best by the organoleptic test, followed by Bacillus subtilis alkaline protease, Bromelain and Ficin in the decreasing order. Every proteolytic enzyme used there showed that it had its own specific amount of enzyme activity to give the best tastiness and tenderness to meat. In the casesof Bromelain and Bacillus subtilis alkaline protease, however, the taste of meat is noticeab ly affected by the amount of enzyme used, and even a slightly larger amount of enzyme than that needed for the formation of tastiness turns out rather to give a bad taste.On the other hand a great excess of the amount of Rhizopus mold protease did not change the tastiness pro duced there. Some analytical experiments on meat digests were undertaken to clarify such dif ference in the effect on meat according to the kind of proteolytic enzyme, and the implica tion of the results was discussed.
When rats were given diets lacking in one or more esse ntial nutrients, they lost their appetite. However, when the depleted nutrients were su pplemented in the diet, they regained their appetite right away. In some cases, the recovery of appetite coincided with the supplement. The latent time and degree of anorexia were different depending on the kinds of essential nutrients lacking in the diets.