On the soybean oil heated for 20 hours but intermittently several measurements were made on the following items, acid value, saponification value, peroxide value, iodine number, TBA value, carbonyl value, refractive index, and the amount of conjugated diene. Iodine number decreased consistently with the heating, while acid value, saponification value, refractive index and conjugated diene increased throughout the period. On the other hand TBA, carbonyl peroxide values did not show a definite change in one direction. These three tests often used for the measurement of degree of rancidity of the edible oils seemed to be sometimes inappropriate for the oils which were usually treated under a higher temperature such as 180-200°C in the process of cooking or frying.
Actomyosin fraction extracted from muscle of octopus with Weber Edsall's solution was investigated. This protein fraction has an adenosintriphosphatase activity, which is activated by calcium, magnesium, manganese but inhibited by beryllium, zinc, fluorine, azide and parachloromercuricbenzoate. The protein fraction exhibits a remarkable viscosity drop in 0.6M KCl solution by the addition of 8×10-3M ATP, followed by the subsequent recovering of the reduced viscosity in the course of time. These facts suggest that in the muscle of octopus exists an actomyosin-like protein similar to the one of striated muscle of mammals. The crude extract with Weber-Edsall's solution shows a remarkable viscosity increase instead of viscosity drop to ATP and AMP at 20°C. The significance of these phenomena was not get clarified. Soluble ATPase which is soluble in dilute salt solution and precipitates in 35%saturated (NH4) 2 SO4solution was also found in the muscle of octopus, but this ATPase splits 2mols of phosphoric acid from ATP. The protein is supposed to be a single enzyme, apyrase or that contaminated by myokinase.
The analyses of the oil extracted from the meant of fried soy bean curd according to Floch's method 7) showed the absence of sulfur but the presence of phoshorus. presumably indicating the presence of phoshatides. The oil was found to contain. about 70% linoleic and 12-15% linolenic acids. Activated charcoal was found to be much more efficient in trapping both volatile acid and carbonyl compounds than cold traps in a dry ice-acetone bath. It appeared that the number of days elapsed after extraction of the oil affected the number of the carbonyl compounds detected on the paper chromatogr ams, i. e., three distinct spots could be detected at four days after extraction of the oil but the one with Rf 0.01-0.04 disappeared after 20 days and the one with Rf 0.84 was disintegrated to give four different compounds.
In order to study the lipotropic and toxic actions of DL-methionine, rats of SD strain were divided into 3 groups and were maintained for 22 days on diets prepared by adding 10%, 5% or 0% DL-methionine respectively to a basal diet containing 10% casein and 30% fat. The effect of supplement on weight change, crude fat contents of the liver, and histopathologic changes in livers and kidneys were investigated. The rats in the 10% group showed a rapid weight decrease, and died successively after the 4th day. Those in the 5% group also showed a weight decrease, but were alive throughout the period of the experiment. In both 10% and 5% groups, the crude fat contents were equal with those of the normal groups, but the liver and kiney exhibited a remarkable fatty degeneration by the probable intoxication.
In the present work, diets supplemented with D-and L-methionne 5 and 10%, respectively, to a basal diet containing 10% casein and 30% fat were administered to rats, and the weight change and the histopathologic degeneration of the rats were investigated. No change of body weight was observed in both 5 % groups, whereas a remarkable decrease was seen in both 10% groups. In both 5 % groups, the kidneys were free from histopothologic change, but a slight fatty degeneration was observed in the livers. In the 10% groups, however, the change in livers was very slight, but the fatty degeneration in kidneys was detected. It might be concluded that excessive supplemeut of D-or L-methionine caused no fat deposition in the livers, but had an unfavorable effect on the kidneys.
In the previous papers the author reported characteristic and nutritive changes of slightly heated oils. However, differences were found between slightly heated and highly heated oils. The present paper mentions the case of highly heated oils. Synthetic trilinolenin and autoxidized linseed oils were heated at 280-300°C for 4-6 hours while linseed oil ester at 220-230°C for 24 hours, and characteristic and nutritive changes were studied. In those experiments, volatile compounds were formed, and nutritive value of heated oils were decreased. Nutritive value of oils can be said to be decreased by strong heating.
The aim of the present study is to examine the validity of FAO's formula calculating the protein requirement with reference to the quality of dietary protein. According to FAO, the protein requirement should be inversely proportional to the protein score of the dietary protein. In accordance with this principle, two kinds of low protein diet were arranged, where one contained protein of low score, 67-73, but of higher amount 0.76-0.78g/kg/day, while the protein in the other is of high nutritive value with protein score 93-96, but of lower amount 0.54-0.61 g/kg/day. Each kind of diet was provided to four respective adult subjects for three to twelve weeks. Daily nitrogen balance, 17-KS and 17-OHCS output in urine, and blood properties, especially total hemoglobin content and serum protein content in circulating blood, were determined on these subjects in relation with the days of experimental diet. From the experimental results it is concluded that the larger amount of low qualified protein is better than the lower amount of high qualified protein to prevent an anemia and a hypoproteinemia in protein deficiency, and it follows that the FAO formula, for conversion of quality of protein to quantity is yet incom plete and requires further improvement. Another conclusion from the above experiment is that the minimum protein require-ment to maintain the nitrogen balance is only one of the factors for evaluating the safe protein intake which can maintain healthy life, and should not be overcharged as was done previously. In order to arrive at the safe intake, it is necessary to evaluate the necessary dietary protein to guarantee the adequate quantity of reserve protein, especially the normal amounts of blood protein and also the normal function of various organs, especially of endocrine glands.
The Technical Committee of the League of Nation recommended lg/kg/day as the minimum safe protein intake for an adult. The author confirmed in the previous report, that the indication of protein deficiency appeared by providing the subject with 0.8 g/kg/day of dietary protein for 12 weeks. The author aimed to examine whether or not the previously believed protein intake of lg/kg/day can maintain the normal level of blood property and adrenocortical function. For the purpose, monks on Mt. Hiei who were taking 1.0-1.3 g/kg/day of dietary protein for long period of time were examined on their blood properties and adrenocortical function. It was found that the blood properties are maintained at almost normal level, and the excretions of adrenocortical hormones in urine are at the lowest level in their res-pective normal range. From these results and by taking into consideration of the wide variety of digestibility of Japanese diet, it was concluded that 1.25 g/kg/day was reasonable as the safe intake for Japanese as was recommended recently by the National Resources Council in Japan.