Among the crops, buckwheat contains much protein and more lysine than polished rice, and the protein score of buckwheat is estimated to be high. The rate of growth and the activity of liver xanthine oxidase were examined in rats fed on buckwheat flour as protein source. The same examinations were made on rats fed onpolished rice flour. (1) The rate of growth and the activity of xanthine oxidase of the group given buckwheat flour were higher than those of the polished rice flour. (2) The increase of weight and the activity of xanthine oxidase were higher in the group given buckwheat flour supplemented with 0.2% L-lysine, 0.6% DL-threonine and 0.4%DL-methionine than the group without supplement. (3) The group given polished rice supplemented with amino acids (lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan) was compared with the group given 2/3 of polished rice flour a 1/3 of buckwheat flour. Each diet contained 6% of casein and 11% of the t otal amount of protein. No significant difference was found between the two groups. This result was assumed to be due to the supplemental effect of amino acids given by buckwheat flour on polished rice flour.
The authors investigated the calorie and protein intake over one year with pupils in dormitories in senior high school (29 males; 17 females, aged from 15 to 18 years) in association with observations of their physical fitness and structure. 1) The calorie intake was 2, 670 Cal.(males) and 2, 280 Cal.(females) per day on average. The calorie consumption per day calculatedfrom the investigation by the time-study method was 2, 390 Cal.(males) and 2, 040 Cal (females) on average. The differences between these two categories were about 10% of the calorie intake which may correspond to calorie consumption due to S.D.A. and the growth. 2) The protein intake was 90g/day (1.6g/kg) with male and 72g/day (1.4g/kg) with female and the protein score was 72 to 75, the limiting amino acid being tryptophan. 3) The rate of growth of height, body weight and physical strength of these pupils in a year was about the same or a little higher as compared with the standard rate of Japanese young people of the same age. 4) The calorie and the protein intakes of these pupils are a little lower than the levels of the recommended allowance of the Japanese revised at 1957. Therefore, it is concluded that the revised recommended daily dietary allowance can fulfil the physiological requirements of calorie and protein which enable the present standard rate of Japanese high teen agers.
The nutritive value of food has been expressed by the mere arrangement of absolute value in the nutritional elements. Therefore, the housewives and persons in charge of school or hospital lunch supply have been greatly embarrassed, when they intend to make nutritious menu. To lighten their burden, Fundamental Nutrition Coefficient were given, in which the coefficient of the percentage of nutritional value contained in a cooked or uncooked food to a daily dietary nutritional allowance is indicated. By the numerical table of F. N. C, it will become easy and simplified to caluculate the nutritional satisfaction percentage and to make the selection of nutritious menu.
The so-called “Nährgeldwert” has been applied hitherto only to calorie or protein contained in the foodstuffs. In this report, the concept of“ Nährgeldwert” is developed to all the nutritional units and it is also applied generally and directly to cooked dish, and a new concept of Economical Nutrition Coefficient (E.N.C) has been defined. By using E.N.C the selection of menu to assure the necessary quantity of nutrition within the limited cost has become easily performable.
The cooked rices were classified in two groups according to their eating qualities (stickiness, off-flavor, color). One of them was sticky, off-flavor and transparent, and the other was less sticky, less off-flavor and white. The former was more fitted for Japanese gout than the lattes in these qualities. Rices of superior quality were Norin No.1, Koshihikari, Koshiziwase, Yatikogane, and Koshisakae and those of poor quality were Norin No.43, Nihonkai, Yoneyama, Shin No.7, Norin No.41, Hokuriku No.52, San-in No.52, Mihonishiki, and Tangin. The observed values for eating quality were subjected to statistical analysis, and it was recognized that there were slight personal differences between observers and there were great differences between varieties. The results reported in part 1 and part 2 were re-confirmed.
Results of statistical analysis of rice samples harvested in 1958 showed thatahighly significant positive correlation of 0.8761 existed between palatabilit cohesiveness of cooked rice. The tests showed a low signific ant correlation of 0.55b etween the alkali dispersal of white rice and the palatability of cooked rice;between the alk ali dispersal of white rice and the varieties maturing early orin the season, there was a highly significant correlation of 0.9566.
1) The authors gave tryptophan deficient diet to albino rats, weighing 120 to 130g, andf ound the following characteristic symptoms: i) All of the rats revealed the symptoms within a month. ii) The symptoms resembled Parkinson's disease, one of the symptoms of the extrapyramidal lesions. iii) The general conditions of the rats were fair. iv) When tryptophan was given after the appearance of nervous symptoms, their recovery was poor. They showed almost no signs of improvement even after a month. 2) When rats weighing 40 to 50 g were fed on tryptophan deficient diets, they weakened rapidly and died before they showed any nervous symptoms.
The patients with typical beriberi symptoms and with primary Perléche (fissure and erosion at the angle of the mouth) served as thiamine deficient and riboflavin deficient patients for this study. The serum protein pattern was examined by paperchromatography. The following results were obtained. 1) The serum proteins of the beriberi patients were of various grades, from normal level to high degree of hypoproteinemia. Edema, which is the main symptom of beriberi, is not necessarily related with the serum protein contents, and it can often been noticed even in patients with normal serum protein contents. In the treatment of edema, injection of thiamine as well as its derivatives (oral administration is the same) was very effective. In the cases of beriberi, edema with low serum protein level was not cured unless given large amounts of protein or amino acids together with thiamine. 2) Among riboflavin deficient patients including those who seemed to be healthy in general condition, their serum protein patterns were of various grades from normal level to hypoproteinemia. The serum protein patterns of patients who repeatedly suffered from riboflavin deficiency for many years were worse. The patients with normal protein pattern cannot be cured with riboflavin alone. Only large amount of good quality protein or amino acids togetherwith FAD injections were sufficiently effective.
Carotene was given to 7 dogs orally, and the quantity of carotene in every parts ofcanal were dete rmined with an aid of chromium oxide index method. The results obtained were as follows: (1) The quantity of carotene decreased in the stomach. The rate of decrease was high for carotene olive-oil, and it was lower for green leafy vegetables. (2) Carotene decreased also in the small intestines. The decreasing rate was higher in the upper parts of the small intestines. (3) In the colon and the rectum, the results did not always show the decrease, sometimes showing even an increase. (4) Carotene found in the feces was about 10% of the taken when carotene olive-oil was given, and it was 30-70% for green leaves. (5) It was considered that the decrease in the stomach was caused by degeneration or resolution, and the decrease in the small intestines was not always caused by abs orption. Thei ncrease in the colon and the rectum may have been caused by re-excret (6) Chromium oxide was considered to be not always an adequate substance for the determination of absorption rate of carotene in the digestive canals.