The fatty acid composition of the liver and adipose tissue from fasting rats were examined by means of gas chromatography. It has been proved that each fatty acid which constitutes phopholipids or neutral fats of the liver and adipose tissue changes its content individually through the course of starvation. The fact suggests that the fatty acids of some kinds of the lipid seem likely to serve in a di fferent manner respectively as an energy source of the body.
The ratio (K) of fA to fB is defined as Nutritional Balance Coefficient, where both fA and fB are the F. N. C. of certain foodstuffs or dishes. 1) The ratio K expresses numerically the nutritional balance between the two nutritional elements. 2) The nutritional balance and pattern about two elements of several groups of menu or food are characterized in the fA-fB-diagram. 3) The ratio of fA to EA is the coefficient corresponding to the cost of the foodstuff, and all the foods which have equal ratio are of the same cost. 4) Radiantly the straight lines can be drawn through zero point on the fA-fB-diagram, which indicate the points of the same cost. The figure thus obtained can be useful when the choice of menu is necessary within the limited amount of expense.
1) The percentage ratio of amino acid contained in the food to the ideal amount per N 1g was calculated, and a list indicating the mutual balance of amino acid and the proteinscores was prepared. 2) The percentage ratio of amino acids contained in 100g foodstuff to the fundamental daily nutritional allowances was listed into the fAAx-table. This table offAAx about amino acids is equivalent to the F. N. C. table previously reported. 3)KAAx, i. e. the ratio of fAAx. to fprot, can indicate the irregularity in composition of amino acids in each food protein. 4) By applying the fAAx-table, the protein scores of foodstuffs or cooked meals isgiven by the following equation: whereKkN is a constant determined by Nitrogen constantNxexclusively. 5) The error in protein score calculation following the equation was studied. 6) The value of fAAx/fprot, in the case of SAAx=100is 100/KkN, and its table corresponding to Nx was exemplified. In this case the protein score of food is always satisfied, so that KAAxtable is useful. An example of its application was given.
An experiment on the weanling rats were proceeded to estimate the nutritional value of the utilization of skim-milk in the farm village diets of the Tohoku District (especially, eastern side) of Japan. The farm village diets were divided into two groups by the protein content. Low and high protein diets contained 9.05% and 11.71% protein in average, and used as the experimental diet I and IV respectively. Experimental diets II and V were added skim-milk to the diets I and IV respectively to make the protein content of about 18%. Experimental diets HI and VI were added V. B2 to the diets I and IV respectively to make its content as of the diets II and V. Thirty-six weanling rats of Wister strain were divided into six groups I to VI. Each groups consisted of six rats, three males and three females, and was fed with the corresponding experimental diet I to VI. During and after 40 days feeding, the animals were examined on the following items as the indication of the nutritional values of these diets: increasing rate of body weight, efficiency ratio of diet, weight of liver, spleen and kidney, bone length and weight, calcification of bone, the liver fat content, the level of blood hemoglobin, serum alkaline phosphatase activity. The following results were concluded from the experiment. The diets II and V had a higher nutritional value to growing rats than the other diets and the differences were statistically significant, especially in the point of view of body weight, visceral weight, bone length and content of minerals in bone. On the mean of the liver fat content, there was no significant difference among each group of different diet, except between diets I and V (I was higher than V). The low protein, low calcium diet seemed to have a contributing factor in liver fat deposition. The level of serum alkaline phosphatase of the rats of diets II and V were lower than that of the other groups. The differences were statistically significant. The level of blood hemoglobin seemed to reflect the amont of V. B2 in diets.
Rats were fed on several fat diets, and fats and fatty acids in serum were analysed. When rats were fed on high-fat diets, large amounts of diglycerides, monoglycerides and fatty acids were absorbed. The absorption was largest when olive oil and linseed oil were fed and was least by depot fat of rats. From above results it was suggested that the greatest incerase in absorption would be observed by simple saturated?triglycerides feeding and little change by mixed 2-unsaturated-1-saturated trigly-cerides feeding.
The patient (29 years, housewife) suffered for a long time from typical vitamin B2 group defficiencies, but from Feb. 1961 pantothenic acid defficient symptoms also appeared. Thereafter the pantothenic acid defficient symptoms appeared off and on for about a year and 9 months. She was then treated with various kinds and doses of pantothenic acid derivatives, such as, D-L (or D-)-alcium pantothenate or D-L (or D-)-pantothenol and the effect of each derivatives was observed. 1) 100mg of D-calcium pantothenate or D-pantothenol cured the symptoms readily. In the case of D-L-derivative 200mg had the same effectiveness. 2) When 100mg of D-calcium pantothenate or Dpantothenol was given in the early stage or reappearance of pantothenic acid defficient symptomes, the effectiveness was remarkable. 3) Pantothenic acid defficient symptomes and nicotinic acid defficient symptoms readily recovered when given orally lange amounts (100mg) of the defficient vitamins. On the other hand vitamin B2 defficient symptoms required about one to several weeks' treatment and vitamin B1 defficient symptoms required several months treatment.