To clarify the effect of protein nutrition on sports anemia, 90 rats were divided into three groups, high protein group (24% casein food), standard protein group (16% casein food) and low protein group (8% casein food). Each group was divided in two groups respectively, resting group and exercising group, the latter ran two hours daily with a speed of 1.3km/h for 10 days. Blood properties, especially hemoglobin content, hypotonic resistance of erythrocyte, and metabolism of hemin labelled with 59Fe and myoglobin content in skeletal muscles were measured. (1) The sports anemia was severest in the protein deficient group, significantly verified in the standard group while not significant in the high protein group. (2) The increase of reticulocyte count which accompanied the sports anemia was most remarkable in the high protein group, while the least in the protein deficient group. (3) The antihemolytic value defined by Shiraki decreased with the erythrocytes of the exercising rats as compared with the resting ones both in the standard and low protein group, while it increased in the high protein group. (4) The turnover rate of hemin 59Fe of the erythrocyte labelled with 59Fe increased in the exercising group of all kinds of food group as compared with the resting group. The mean life span of erythrocytes of exercising rats decreased in all kinds of food groups. The mean life span of the erythrocytes of the exercising protein deficient group was about 28 days which was shortest, while that of exercising and high protein food group was about 37 days. (5) The myoglobin content in the skeletal muscle of exercising group increased as compared with the resting control. The increase in the high and standard protein group was remarkable, while the least in protein deficient group. From these results, it is concluded that the tendency of erythrocyte destruction increases by subjecting the rats to heavy daily muscular exercise, and the sports anemia appear. When the high protein food is provided to the exercising rats, the red cell formation is accelerated, and also the resistance of red cell is increased, and the sports anemia is insignificant. On the other hand, if the protein supply is insufficient, the erythrocyte becomes apt to be destructed by exercising and the acceleration of red cell formation due to anemia is not sufficient, thus initiating a severe anemia. Utilization of hemoglobin freed from destructed erythrocyte which was verified by Hiramatsu was reconfined by the measurement of myoglobin in the skeletal muscle of exercising rats.
The effect of starch diet on the utilization of protein for rat was examined, using the following basal diet: 61% starch, 24% wheat gluten, 10% soy bean oil containing cod liver oil, 4% salt mixture, 1% vitamin mixture, and they were supplemented with 5g cellulose per 100g diet. The used starches were corn, rice and potato starches, refined them, and phosphated corn starch. Criteria for evaluation of protein utilization were protein efficiency ratio, digestibility of protein and availability of lysine. Feeding the basal diet, in which lysine was the primary limiting amino acid, the availability of lysine for rat fed rice starch diet was higher than the other starch diets, corn and potato. This result was also obtained when the refined starch diet was fed for rat. But, feeding the 0.08% lysine supplemented diet, in which lysine and methionine were contained at the similar level comparing with essential amino acid pattern, the availability of lysine and protein digestibility were higher for corn starch diet than the other diets, rice and potato. As this result showed that the content of phosphorous in starch, especially bound phosphorous, tended to decrease the lysine availability, the effect of phosphorous bound to starch upon protein utilization was elucidated using phosphated corn starch. Phosphated corn starch diet was inferior to the refined one in all criteria for protein utilization. This result suggests that phosphate bound to starch decreased the lysine availability in these diet compositions.
A Comparison was made in nutritional states in the pregnant whose obstetric outcome was normal and those with minor obstetric pathology such as; overterm, meconium staining of amniotic fluid, threatened fetal asphyxia, premature birth, and giant baby (over 3, 800g). 1) The mean intake of the both groups, based on food groups or nutrients, was approximately the same during entire pregnancy (not necessarily higher in the normal group). 2) Changes of nutritional intake in each gestational trimenster showed difference in both groups. In the normal group, intake increased gradually with the progress of pregnancy so that positive correlation was found. In the abnormal group, however, since the individual variations were large no consistent tendency as in the normal group was noted. These facts were also shown in the 95% confidence interval of the intake. The normal group followed a stable, smooth course, whereas the abnormal zone inconstantly overlapped and winded upon the normal zone.