Nitrogen balance (NB, g/kg/day) and nitrogen utilization rate (NUR, %) were studied during total parenteral nutrition on dogs at various levels of amino-nitrogen intake (N, from 0 to 1.0g/kg/ day) and non-protein calorie intake (Cal, from 0 to 120kcal/kg/day). Nitrogen source is a synthetic amino-acids mixture refering to WHO/FAO reference pattern. A) NB showed a close corelation with N, but not with Cal under various N. A close corelation was observed between NB and Cal, when N was fixed. B) A formula for the relation of Cal, N and NB is caluculated as: NB=0.496N+0.003NCal+0.001Cal-0.243 C) Protein-sparing effect of glucose was maximum at 34kcal/kg/day of glucose intake without amino-nitrogen intake. D) Nitogen utilization rate (NUR) is defined as: NUR=N- (urinary nitrogen output-basal urinary nitrogen output) /N×100 and this can be converted as: ifCal<34 kcal/kg/dayNUR= (0.496+0.003Cal) ×100 (%) if Cal≥34 kcal/kg/dayNUR=0.496N-0.003N·Cal+0.001Cal-0.034/N×100 (NUR≤100%) E) NUR is based on protein-energy interactions, and it is useful for clinical nutrition, especially for the purpose of parenteral nutrition.
Blood volume, F-cells value and blood cell pools in liver and spleen were measured in splenectomized and splenomegaly rats. Splenomegaly of the rats was induced by injecting methyl cellulose and the weight of the spleen increased by 5 folds of the normal rat. The splenic pool of blood cells measured by a tracer method revealed 1.1% of the total red cell volume in normal rats, whereas that of splenomegaly rats was increased to 13.3% of the total red cell volume. In the rats with the enlarged spleen, the concentration of circulating hemoglobin and the hematocrit value were significantly reduced, but the total volume of red cell mass was not reduced in comparison with normal control rats, because the expanded splenic pool of red cells was accounted for the total red cell volume. An expansion of the plasma volume was observed in the rats with the enlarged spleen, and the expansion of the plasma volume resulted in an increase in blood volume and a lowering of the concentration of hemoglobin and the hematocrit value of circulating blood (hemodilution). A concomitant decrease in the body hematocrit and cardiac hematocrit was observed in thesplenomegaly rats, therefore the ratio of body hematocrit to cardiac hematocrit was identical to thatof normal and splenectomized rats. Red cell volume was reduced significantly when an enlarged spleen of the rat was removed just prior to the measurement, and decreased volume was matched to the red cell pool in the enlarged spleen. Accordingly, the ratio of body hematocrit to the cardiac hematocrit was decreased significantly, mainly due to the decreased body hematocrit or decreased red cell mass.
Qur previous work has demonstrated that red muscle with relatively high levels of myoglobin and phospholipids tended to contain a higher amount of α-tocopherol than white one with relatively low levels of those, but a cause for this difference in α-tocopherol content remains to be elucidated. On the other hand, it has been considered that α-tocopherol in tissues is located in the membranous structure of the cell and subcellular particles, especially concentrated in the mitochondria and microsomes. Therefore, in order to find out one of the reasons for the difference in α-tocopherol content between the white and red muscles, the respective concentrations of α-tocopherol in mitochondrial fraction from the white and red muscles of fowl and swine were determined. The white and red muscles used were M. pectoralie profundus and thigh muscle for fowl, and M. longissimus dorsi and M. biceps femoris for swine, respectively. The respective concentrations of α-tocopherol in mitochondrial fraction from the fowl white and red muscles gave 0.113μmole and 0.175μmole per gram of protein. Corresponding figures for the swine muscles were 0.080μmole and 0.148μmole. These findings indicated that in both fowl and swine the concentration of α-tocopherol in mitochondrial fraction was significantly higher in the red muscle than in the white one. The swine red muscle also contained a significantly higher amount of mitochondria than the white one. Judging from the above results, the existence of numerous subcellular particles such as mitochondria and the significantly high level of α-tocopherol of the subcellular particles in the red muscle as compared with the white one seemed to be a reason for the difference in α-tocopherol content between the white and red muscles.