This paper aims to discuss the possible development of regional maritime networks or inter-island human contacts in the Celebes Sea during the 13th to 19th centuries, which mainly correspond to the Age of Commerce and the Colonial times in this region. Geographically, the Celebes Sea is located in the western part of the Wallacea archipelago and is surrounded by the three large islands of Borneo (in Malaysia), Mindanao (in the Philippines), and Sulawesi (in Indonesia), as well as 2 small island groups including the Sulu Islands (in the Philippines) and the Sangihe-Talaud islands (in Indonesia). Among these island groups, we firstly report our recent excavation results at the Bukit Tiwing site in the Talaud Islands, eastern Indonesia. Our archaeological excavations were conducted as co-research with Balai Arkeologi Manado and Ono during 2004 and 2005. These excavations unearthed thousands of shells, animal and fish remains, potsherds, trade ceramics, bone tools, chert flakes, stone adzes, nutcrackers, and fragments of iron. Among these sites, Bukit Tiwing, which dated to around the 15th to 19th centuries, yielded late Ming and Qing trade ceramics, large numbers of potsherds, and faunal remains. Following the analysis of the potsherds, ceramics, and animal remains excavated from Bukit Tiwing, we also compare these findings with pottery pieces and ceramics excavated from other archaeological sites in the Celebes Sea to conclude that the establishment of long-distance trade maritime networks between the eastern part of the Celebes Sea and China took place mainly during the 16th to 18th centuries, while the possible development of regional networks or inter-island contacts in the Celebes Sea could be dated back prior to the 16th century.
In Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands, the previously substantial mangroves have been displaced by other land uses for economic purposes. It is still under debate whether or not the use of the mangrove, one of whose representative products is charcoal for the global market, for the livelihood of the local people is environmentally sustainable. The aim of this study was to examine the temporal changes in mangrove biomass due to charcoal production, land development, and eco-tourism in Batam Island, Indonesia, which has been undergoing rapid industrialization. The biomass change was analyzed based on the MODIS data (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) from 18 February 2000 to 25 June 2012 (data interval=16-day). The change in the mangrove cover area and causes of the change were interpreted on 9 ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) images taken between 2000 and 2012, as well as by field observations and interviews with local people. The long-term trend (i.e., from 2000 to 2012) suggested that the biomass was stable or slightly increased in the eco-tourism zone, whereas it was modestly decreased in zones being used for charcoal production. The main cause of the decrease was due to the occurrence of logging by the local people. A spectrum analysis in tandem with field observation detected two cycles, i.e., (1) yearly or more frequently, and (2) two-to-five-year interval, respectively. It was judged that either the logging for charcoal production or the land development has been higher than the sustainable rate, even though the recovery rate of the mangrove was high. The local people therefore needed to slow down the logging cycle so as to make charcoal production environmentally and economically sustainable.
This paper aims to identify the concrete aspect of collectivity in the vicinity of Red Wave artworks through examining the artistic space for “painting” and “seeing.” It first describes the concept of “Oceania” proposed by Epeli Hau’ofa, which is an equivalent of collectivity sought for among the Red Wave. It then focuses on where a work of art is being painted, especially by one artist working alone, and points out the interdependence—between an artist and the materials—of actions that emerges within the space. This interdependence offers the channel, then, for a viewer of an artwork to make connections with what he is seeing. The paper concludes by discussing these continuous, interdependent actions among the human body and the materials—the network of actions—as one of the bases for the collectivity where Red Wave art emerges.